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Background Learning Topics

Petroleum Geology

Introduction and Overview

expand/collapseFundamentals of Petroleum Geology  (t38098) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary:

The same basic fundamentals for hydrocarbon accumulation apply for small accumulations as they do for large accumulations, and those basic principles should always be applied. However, hydrocarbon exploration has become more challenging as larger discoveries are less prolific and smaller accumulations, as well as unconventional resources, require more technological advancements in order to be economically feasible.

Due to these challenges, it is essential to discover and evaluate new methods and standards in petroleum geology. This topic explores these methods and standards, such as the classification of different basin types and the requirements involved with the five phases of hydrocarbon exploration. This topic further evaluates the processes involved with maturation, the categorization of organic matter and how it relates to the anticipated hydrocarbon type, and the migration of hydrocarbons and their relationship to porosity and permeability of different rock types. Types of trapping mechanisms involved with hydrocarbon accumulation and both technical and economic risks involved in petroleum geology are also identified.

By exploring these methods and standards, perhaps future challenges and risks can be minimized in the field of petroleum exploration.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapsePetroleum Exploration Overview  (s38099) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basin Description and Classifications
  • Requirements for Petroleum Accumulation
  • Exploration of a Petroleum Basin
  • Technical and Economic Risks in Exploration
expand/collapsePetroleum Generation and Maturation (s38197) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Petroleum Chemistry
  • Crude Oil Classifications
  • Kerogen Types
  • Maturation Processes
expand/collapseMigration and Accumulation Processes (s38266) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Migration Processes
  • Reservoir Porosity and Permeability
  • Trapping Mechanisms
  • Structural Traps
  • Stratigraphic Traps
expand/collapseSubsurface Environment  (t38405) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 30 minutes

(average of 50 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic addresses the fundamental and general conditions of the subsurface environment. The nature of water, pressure, geothermal gradient and fluid dynamics is discussed and its implications on oil and gas generation. Also presented is the effects of overpressure and under pressured environments as it relates to drilling and production.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseWater Origins and Chemistry (s38406) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Subsurface Water Origins
  • Oxidation/Reduction Potential and pH
  • Subsurface Water Salinity
  • Subsurface Water Composition
  • Fluid Behavior
expand/collapseTemperature and Thermal Gradient  (s38424) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Thermal Gradients and Heat Flow
  • Thermal Conductivities in Various Rock Types
  • Regional Thermal Variations
expand/collapsePressure Environments  (s38469) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Components of Subsurface Pressure
  • Downhole Pressures
  • Potentiometric Surfaces
  • Overpressured Environments
  • Compaction Overpressuring Process
  • Compaction Overpressuring in Deltas
expand/collapseHydrocarbon Properties  (t37993) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 30 minutes 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic reviews the characteristics and categorizations of gas, as well as the properties, classifications, and alterations of crude oil. It includes the differences between non-hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon gases, and explores gas hydrates. Physical properties, chemical properties, and varying composition of crude oil are presented, and how these three elements can have both positive and negative effects on petroleum exploration are also explored. This topic also evaluates a typical classification scheme of the occurrence of crude oils.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseGas Properties and Classifications  (s37994) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Gas Properties and Classifications Overview
  • Properties of Non-Hydrocarbon Gases
  • Hydrocarbon Gases
  • Gas Hydrates
expand/collapseCrude Oil Properties, Classifications, and Alterations (s38001) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Crude Oil Properties, Classifications, and Alterations Overview
  • Physical Properties of Crude Oil
  • Chemical Properties of Crude Oil
  • Classification and Occurrences of Crude Oils
  • Alteration of Crude Oil
expand/collapseHydrocarbon Generation and Migration (t39285) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 70 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic outlines the depth, temperature and time effects on the generation of hydrocarbons. It discusses the ways we can use source rock minerals to determine paleotemperature, and explains how to identify the various kerogen types and unique chemistries on Van Krevelen plots. Kerogen types, their origins, components and ability to generate hydrocarbons are discussed. The three important stages in the burial and evolution of organic matter into hydrocarbons are described. The topic outlines the two nonaqueous models in primary migration and lists the three main factors involved in secondary migration. It identifies the conditions under which secondary migration generally occurs and gives examples of the range of distances. Two ways that the solubility of hydrocarbon in water can be enhanced are outlined and it describes the distinction between primary and secondary migration.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseGeneration and Maturation Processes (s39286) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Petroleum Source Material
  • Organic Productivity
  • Preservation and Organic Destruction
  • Diagenesis of Organic Matter
  • Kerogen Components
  • Hydrocarbons and Kerogen Type
  • Chemical Changes with Kerogen Maturation
  • Depth, Temperature and Time Effects
  • Paleothermometry
  • Oil Shale
expand/collapseMigration Processes (s39287) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Primary Migration
  • Secondary Migration
expand/collapseReservoirs (t34) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Outlines basic characteristics of reservoir lithologies and discusses identification, measurement and evaluation of reservoir conditions in rocks. Considers reservoir properties which determine overall quality: porosity, permeability, and their interrelationship; diagenetic effects and reservoir continuity. Stresses the different requirements for evaluation of clastic and carbonate reservoirs.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseRock Properties (s1018) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Porosity Defined
  • Primary Porosity
  • Secondary Porosity
  • Permeability
  • Grain Size
  • Grain Sorting
  • Rock Fabric
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
  • Exercise No. 7
expand/collapseDiagenesis (s1019) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sandstone Burial
  • Sandstone Cementation
  • Sandstone Secondary Porosity
  • Sandstone Diagenetic Pathways
  • Carbonate Rock Types
  • Limestones
  • Dolomites
  • Atypical Reservoir Rocks
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseReservoir Continuity (s1020) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Areal Continuity
  • Cross-Sectional Continuity
  • Case History: Handil Field, Indonesia
  • Case History: Intisar Field, Libya
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseReservoirs: References and Additional Information (s1021) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseTraps (t35) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Petroleum generated from source rocks moves up through permeable strata and would be lost at the earth's surface if not "trapped" on its way up. Describes the characteristics of the principal trap types, how they appear on geologic sections and maps, and how they are analyzed in terms of geologic history. Examines constraints on production imposed by variations in trapping.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseHydrocarbon Traps: Introduction (s1022) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Definitions and General Concepts
  • Trap Classifications
expand/collapseStructural Traps (s1023) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Fold Traps (Compressional)
  • Fold Traps (Compactional)
  • Fold Traps: Comparison of Major Types
  • Fault Traps
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
expand/collapseStratigraphic Traps (s1024) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Depositional Traps: Channels
  • Depositional Traps: Bars
  • Depositional Traps: Reefs
  • Diagenetic Traps
  • Unconformity-Related Traps
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseOther Trap Types (s1025) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Hydrodymanic Traps
  • Combination Traps
  • Diapir-Associated Traps
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
expand/collapseTraps: References and Additional Information (s1026) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseHabitat of Hydrocarbons in Sedimentary Basins (t36) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Provides the format for genetic classification of sedimentary basins, drawing together the principles of the previous six modules into the evaluation of the earth's plate tectonic framework. Explains identification and classification of sedimentary basins, their role in forming oil and gas, and the habitats of oil and gas within them.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseSedimentary Basins: Overview (s1027) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Geometry of Sedimentary Basins
  • Sediment Fill
  • Tectonic Processes and Timing
  • Basin-Forming Mechanisms
  • Basin Classification
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseCratonic Basins (s1028) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Interior (Intracratonic) Basins
  • Foreland (Craton Margin) Basins
expand/collapseDivergent Margin Basins (s1029) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Rift Basins
  • Pull-Apart Basins
expand/collapseConvergent Margin Basins (s1030) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Description
  • Fore-Arc and Back-Arc Basins
  • Non-Arc Basins
  • Collision Basins
  • Petroleum Features
expand/collapseDownwarp Basins and Tertiary Deltas (s1031) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Downwarp Basins
  • Tertiary Deltas
expand/collapsePetroleum Characteristics by Basin Type (s1032) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Distribution of Petroleum-Rich Basins
  • Distribution of Field Sizes
  • Distribution of Petroleum Characteristics
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseBasin Types: Review Exercises (s3565)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseHabitat of Hydrocarbons in Sedimentary Basins: References and Additional Information (s1033) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading

Basic Skills of the Petroleum Geologist

expand/collapseGeologic Cross-Sections (t37) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Teaches the construction of the two principal types of cross sections--structural and stratigraphic--and their extensions into three-dimensional (fence) diagrams. Introduces computer generation of maps and sections.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseCross-Section Elements (s1034) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Input Data
  • Line of Section
  • Scale
  • Datum
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
  • Exercise No.4
expand/collapseCross-Sections in Two Dimensions (s1035) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Structural Cross-Sections
  • Stratigraphic Cross-Sections
  • Correlation and Geologic Interpretation
  • Completing the Cross-Section
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseCross-Section Diagrams in Three-Dimensions (s1036) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Fence Diagrams
  • Block Diagrams
expand/collapseCross-Sections: Computer Methods (s4653) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseStructural Restoration: Concepts and Timing (s36953) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Structural Restoration Introduction & Concepts
  • Mechanical Stratigraphy
  • Classical Balancing Techniques
  • Balancing Compressional Structures
  • Balancing Extensional Structures
  • Related Structures
  • Strike-Slip Faults
  • References
expand/collapseGeologic Cross-Sections: References and Additional Information (s4654) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseSubsurface Mapping (t38) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: An integrated approach to subsurface mapping, discussing downhole data, correlations between wells, and how to depict surfaces and three-dimensional units on contour maps. Presents surface maps and geophysical or remote sensing surveys as aids in delimiting important structural and stratigraphic relationships. Stresses proper correlation and use of borehole information.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseLateral Correlation of Logged Data (s1037) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Defining Surfaces
  • Delimiting Units
  • Contour Mapping
  • Mechanical and Interpretive Contouring
expand/collapseStructural Contour Maps (s1038) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Adequacy of Contours for Depicting Structure
  • Fault Detection
  • Vertical Faults
  • Normal/Oblique Normal Faults
  • Reverse Faults
  • Unconformities
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseIsopach and Other Subsurface Maps (s1039) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Isopachs of Time-Rock Intervals
  • Isopachs of Rock ( Lithologic ) Units
  • Isolith Maps
  • Compound Maps
  • Subcrop Maps
  • Miscellaneous Maps and Their Applications
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapsePaleo-Structure Maps (s36986) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Why make Paleo-Structure Maps
  • The Migration of Fluids in the Subsurface
  • This is Now, What was Then
  • Conclusions
  • References
expand/collapseSubsurface Mapping: References and Additional Information (s5191) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseProspect Generation (t39) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Teaches how prospects are generated, emphasizing recognition of previously undelineated anomalies, and that although each prospect is unique, the general patterns of prospect generation are roughly similar. Presents learning basic patterns by using the experience of others and reviewing past cases.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseProspect Generation: Basic Concepts and Definitions (s1040) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Anomalies and Leads
  • Prospects
  • False Anomalies
  • Prospective Regions or Trends
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseProspect Generation in Frontier Regions (s1041) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Data and Technical Requirements
  • Case Study- Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska
  • Hydrocarbon Potential and Risk
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseModel Prospects (s1042) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Deltaic-Growth Fault Model ( Devillier Gas Field )
  • South Louisiana Model ( Turtle Prospect )
  • Mississippi Wilcox Model
  • Muddy Sandstone Model
  • Models of Exploration by Remote Sensing
  • The Red Fork Channel Sandstone Model
  • Reef Models
  • Turbidite Models
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
  • Exercise No.4
expand/collapseProspect Generation: References and Additional Information (s5192) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading

Reservoir Geology

expand/collapseNonmarine Sandstone Reservoirs (t49) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Presents basic concepts and techniques of exploration for nonmarine sandstone reservoirs. Applies common tools for examining nonmarine settings--such as rivers, desert dunes and lakes-- in terms of their genesis and recognition in the subsurface.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseClassification of Nonmarine Sandstones (s1050) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Rules of Thumb and Their Limitations
expand/collapseAlluvial Fan Environments (s1051) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Depositional Processes and Lithologic Characteristics
  • Paleontology
  • Geometry
  • Associated Facies
  • Diagnostic Evidence
expand/collapseBraided Stream Environments (s1052) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Depositional Processes and Lithologic Characteristics
  • Paleontology
  • Geometry
  • Associated Facies
  • Diagnostic Evidence
  • Basic Reservoir Characteristics
  • Examples
expand/collapseMeandering Channel Alluvial Systems (s1053) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Depositional Processes and Lithologic Characteristics
  • Paleontology
  • Geometry
  • Associated Facies
  • Diagnostic Evidence
  • Basic Reservoir Characteristics
  • Examples
expand/collapseEolian Environments (s1054) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Depositional Processes and Lithologic Characteristics
  • Paleontology
  • Geometry
  • Associated Facies
  • Diagnostic Evidence
  • Reservoir Characteristics
  • Examples
expand/collapseLacustrine Environments (s1055) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Characteristics
  • Examples
expand/collapseExercises: Identifying Reservoir Environments (s1924)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseNonmarine Sandstone Reservoirs: References and Additional Information (s1056) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseShelf Marine Sandstone Reservoirs (t51) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes characteristics of shelf sand reservoirs, including elongate submarine fans, radial submarine fans and slope-apron systems. Presents detection methods including seismic, well-log, core analysis, paleontology and production studies.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Shelf Marine Sandstone Reservoirs (s1061) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Continental Shelf Sands
  • Reservoir Aspects: Summary
expand/collapseDepositional Processes of Shelf Sands (s1062) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Tidal Currents
  • Storm Currents
  • Turbidity Currents
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseShelf Sand Deposits (s1063) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Sand Sheets
  • Sand Ridges
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseDiagnosis and Detection of Shelf Sands (s1064) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Paleontology
  • Associated Facies
  • Seismic
  • Well Logs
  • Cores
  • Shelf Sands Distinguished from Shoreline Sands
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapsePetroleum Geology, Reservoir Characteristics (s1915) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Shelf Sands: General Observations
  • Example: Hartzog Draw Field, Wyoming, USA
expand/collapseShelf Marine Sandstone Reservoirs: References and Additional Information (s1916) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseMarginal Marine Sandstone Reservoirs (t50) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Examines coastal barrier islands, shallow-marine shoals, bars and deltas, presenting depositional and erosional conditions dominant during formation. Describes diagnosis and recognition through use of seismic, well-log, map and core data.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Marginal Marine Sandstone Reservoirs (s1057) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Depositional Influences
  • General Classifications
  • Principal Sedimentary Processes
expand/collapseDeltaic Environments (s1058) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Significance to Petroleum Exploration
  • General Depositional Setting
  • Delta Classifications
  • Upper/Lower Delta Plain Subenvironments
  • Subaqueous Subenvironment
  • Transgressive Processes
  • Braided Stream and Point Bar Deposits
  • Distributary Channel Sand Deposits
  • Crevasse Subdelta Deposits
  • Distributary Mouth Bars
  • River Mouth Tidal Ridge Deposits
  • Barrier Island Sands
  • Reservoir Characteristics
  • Deltaic Vertical Sequence
  • Example: Handil Field, Indonesia
  • Depositional Processes, Effect on Structure
  • Seismic Identification
  • Fan Deltas
  • Summary; General Characteristics
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
  • Exercise No. 7
expand/collapseBarrier Islands (s1060) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Relative Influence of Wave and Tidal Processes
  • Distribution of Facies
  • Morphology and Depositional Processes
  • Beach to offshore Facies
  • Regressive Vertical Sequences
  • Associated Sand Facies
  • Sand Plains and Chenier Deposits
  • Stratigraphic Sequence
  • Paleontology
  • Morphology
  • Reservoir Characteristics
  • Identification of Barrier Island Deposits
  • Field Example: Bell Creek Field, Montana
  • Summary; General Characteristics
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseMarginal Marine Sandstone Reservoirs: References and Additional Information (s1059) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseDeepwater Marine Sandstone Reservoirs (t2613) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes characteristics of deepwater sand reservoirs, including elongate submarine fans, radial submarine fans and slope-apron systems. Presents detection methods including seismic, well-log, core analysis, paleontology and production studies.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Deepwater Marine Sandstone Reservoirs (s2614) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Deep Sea Sands
  • Reservoir Aspects: Summary
expand/collapseSedimentation Processes (s2615) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Slumps and Slides
  • Debris Flows
  • Grain Flow
  • Fluidized Flow
  • Turbidity Currents
  • Flow Relationships
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseDepositional Systems (s2616) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Submarine Fans: Overview
  • Elongate Submarine Fans
  • Radial Submarine Fans
  • Radial Submarine Fan: Example
  • Slope-Apron Systems
  • Deep Sea Sedimentation Controls
  • Lithofacies of Submarine Fans and Associated Systems
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseSubsurface Diagnosis and Detection (s2617) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Paleontology
  • Associated Facies
  • Cores
  • Well Logs
  • Seismic
expand/collapseSequence Stratigraphy (s2618) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Models
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapsePetroleum Geology and Reservoir Characteristics (s2619) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Channel Reservoirs
  • Submarine Fan Reservoirs
expand/collapseDeepwater Marine Sandstone Reservoirs: References and Additional Information (s2620) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapsePorosity Evolution in Sandstone Reservoirs (t52) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes porosity evolution in all sandstone reservoirs, regardless of depositional environment, and reviews factors that control primary and secondary porosity. Evaluates tools and techniques used for description of sandstone porosity and porosity evolution. Illustrates applications of porosity evolution through case studies.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseDescription of Sandstone Porosity (s1065) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Sandstone Porosity Classification
  • Sandstone Pore Systems
  • Capillary Pressure Characterization
  • Controls on Primary Porosity
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseDiagenesis (s1066) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Mechanical Compaction
  • Chemical Compaction
  • Relationship of Compactional Processes
  • Authigenic Cementation
  • Factors Influencing Porosity Reduction
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
expand/collapseSecondary Porosity (s1067) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Description and Recognition Criteria
  • Fracture Porosity
  • Shrinkage Porosity
  • Dissolution Porosity
  • Diagenetic Processes Resulting in Secondary Porosity
  • Factors Influencing Creation of Secondary Porosity
  • Diagenetic Cycle of Sandstone
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseEvaluation Tools and Techniques (s1068) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Describing Porosity
  • Interpreting Porosity Evolution
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseEandP Applications (s1069) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Porosity Prediction
  • Diagenetic Traps
  • Reservoir Aspects of Secondary Porosity
  • Reservoir Aspects of Authigenic Clays
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseCase Studies (s1070) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Scotian Shelf, Canada
  • Cook Inlet Basin Alaska: Sterling and Beluga Formations
  • Cold Lake Deposit, Canada
expand/collapsePorosity Evolution in Sandstone Reservoirs: References and Additional Information (s1071) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseExploration in Carbonate Rocks (t53) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces carbonates by examining formation and deposition, focusing on ramp and slope models and the depositional settings within them. Presents field examples of ancient and modern carbonate deposits and their reservoir characteristics.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Exploration in Carbonate Rocks (s1072) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Approach to Facies Analysis
  • Economic Significance of Carbonate Reservoirs
  • General Sedimentary Setting
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseCarbonate Rocks Described (s1073) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Carbonate Grain Types
  • Classification of Carbonate Rocks
  • Principles of Carbonate Sedimentation
  • Carbonate Ramp Model
  • Carbonate Shelf Model
  • Carbonate Shelf Model Through Time
  • General Depositional Settings and Sedimentary Cycles
  • Principle Depositional Models and Environments
  • Carbonate Diagenesis
  • Dolomitization
  • Carbonate Porosity
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseAnalysis of Carbonate Rocks and Facies Distribution (s1074) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview of Petrophysical Properties
  • Tools and Techniques
  • Stratigraphic Framework
  • Disconformities and Exposure Surfaces
  • Seismic Stratigraphy
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseNonmarine Carbonate Settings (s1075) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Lacustrine Environment
  • Carbonate Dune Environment
  • Caliche
  • Cave Deposits
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseCoastal Setting (s1076) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Carbonate Beach Depositional Model
  • Tidal Flat and Sabkha Depositional Models
  • Swamps in Carbonate Depositional Complexes
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseShelf Setting (s1077) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Restricted vs. Open Shelf Environments
  • Muddy Shelf Sands
  • Tidal Deltas
  • Mudbanks
  • Patch Reefs
  • Shelf Sand Bodies
  • Shelf Basins
expand/collapseShelf-Margin Setting (s1078) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Reefs: Introduction
  • Detection and Delineation of Shelf Margins
  • Ecologic Reefs
  • Seismic Indications
  • Reef Reservoir (Example)
  • Shelf-Margin Sand Bodies
  • Other Shelf-Marginal Depositional Models
  • Ancient Carbonate Reef Margins: Examples
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseForeslope Setting (s1079) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Depositional vs. Bypass Foreslopes
  • Modern Examples of Foreslopes
  • Depositional Models in Foreslope Settings
  • Ancient Examples of Foreslopes
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseBasinal Setting (s1080) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Modern Basinal Carbonate Sediments
  • Main Depositional Models and Facies Types
  • Ancient Basinal Carbonates
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseExploration in Carbonate Rocks: References and Additional Information (s1081) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapsePorosity Evolution in Carbonate Rocks (t54) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Demonstrates the systematic evolution of carbonate porosity and describes classifications and conditions used for predicting porosity distribution. Discusses depositional and diagenetic models of carbonates. Field studies illustrate how to handle porosity parameters in production planning.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Porosity Evolution in Carbonate Rocks (s1082) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Porosity (Fabric Selective)
  • Porosity (Non-Fabric Selective)
  • Breccia Porosity
  • Capillary Pressure Curves
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseDiagenesis and Porosity Evolution (s1083) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Marine Diagenesis
  • Subaerial Diagenesis: Overview
  • Subaerial Diagenesis in Older Carbonate Rocks
  • Subaerial Diagenesis in Young Carbonate Sediments
  • Burial Diagenesis
  • Dolomitization: General Considerations
  • Dolomite Properties and Chemistry
  • Dolomite Porosity and Permeability
  • Dolomitization Models: Overview
  • Reflux Dolomitization Model
  • Tidal Flat Dolomitization Model
  • Mixed Waters Dolomitization Model
  • Burial Compaction Dolomitization Model
  • Fracturing
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseEvaluation of Porosity and Diagenetic History (s1084) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Rock Studies
  • Wireline Logs
  • Petrography
  • Geochemistry
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapsePorosity Evolution and Petroleum Exploration (s1085) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Beach/Dune Complex (Example)
  • Tidal Flat/Sabkha Facies (Example)
  • Carbonate Buildups (Example)
  • Pinnacle Reef Environments (Example)
  • Basinal Carbonates (Example)
  • Fracture Production (Example)
expand/collapsePorosity Evolution and Field Development (s1086) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Microporosity
  • Moldic and Vuggy Porosity
  • Permeability Barriers
  • Waste Zones
expand/collapsePorosity Evolution in Carbonate Rocks: Reference Section (s1087) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseEvaporites and their Role in Petroleum Exploration (t55) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes characteristics of evaporites and examines their relationship to hydrocarbon accumulations, including their role as source beds, reservoirs, traps and seals. Discusses evaporite mineralogy and diagenesis, as well as analysis and identification techniques. Field examples illustrate occurrences, evaluation and significance of evaporite structures.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Evaporites and their Role in Petroleum Exploration (s1088) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Evaporites Described
  • Economic Significance of Evaporite Settings
  • History of Evaporite Research
  • Evaporite Mineralogy
  • Diagenesis
  • Diagenesis: Gypsum/Anhydrite Conversion
  • Analysis from Wireline Logs and Seismic Lines
  • Using Seismic Lines
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseSabkha Depositional Facies and Reservoirs (s1089) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Modern Sabkhas: Arabian (Persian) Gulf
  • Depositional Facies
  • Sabkha Signature
  • Sabkha-Based Reservoir Models
  • Ancient Sabkha-Associated Reservoirs
expand/collapseSubaqueous Evaporites (s1090) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Modern Marine Subaqueous Evaporites
  • Ancient Subaqueous Evaporites and Reservoirs
  • Models of Subaqueous vs. Subaerial Deposition
  • Basin-Wide Evaporites and the Anomaly of Deepwater Evaporites
expand/collapseAncient Depositional Models (s1091) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Platform Evaporites
  • Basin-Wide Evaporites
  • Summary
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseSalt Structures, Sediments and Hydrocarbons (s1092) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Salt Movement
  • Growth of Salt Structures
  • Modern Salt Structures
  • Models of Reservoir Occurrence
  • Salt Structure Reservoirs
  • Salt Structure and Reservoirs in Tectonically Active Provinces
  • Reservoirs Associated with Salt Solution
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseEvaporite/Dolomite/Hydrocarbon Association (s1093) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Dolomite Reservoirs Associated with Evaporites
  • Sabkha Dolomite Model
  • Reflux Dolomite Model
  • Burial Dolomite Model
  • Indicators of Dolomite Origins
  • Timing of Dolomitization
  • Evaporites as Seals
  • Evaporitic Sediments as Source Rocks
expand/collapseEvaporites and their Role in Petroleum Exploration: References and Addition (s1094) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseBasic Geostatistics (t23340) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This presentation describes both classical statistical and geostatistical methodologies designed to quantify qualitative information. Though the material presented is not heavily mathematical, the presentation is not simplistic. General equations and matrix notation are used in some sections. The equations are presented mostly for informational purposes, because calculations used in geostatistics tend to be tedious and very computer-intensive. This module presents an overview of techniques that can be used to transform a traditional geological reservoir description (a surface or 3D volume) into a mathematical reservoir.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Basic Geostatistics (s23341) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Background
expand/collapseClassical Statistical Concepts (s23343) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Populations and Samples
  • Trials Events and Probability
  • Random Variables and Their Probability Distributions
  • Univariate Data Analysis
  • Bivariate Statistical Measures and Displays
expand/collapseData Posting and Validation (s23350) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exploratory Data Analysis
  • Search Neighborhood Criteria
  • Spatial Description
  • Grids and Gridding
  • Traditional Interpolation Methods
  • Map Display Types
  • Moving Window Statistics
expand/collapseRegionalized Variables (s23358) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Spatial Continuity Analysis
  • Spatial Cross-correlation Analysis
  • Stationarity in Regionalized Variables
  • Model Variograms
expand/collapseKriging (s23364) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Kriging Overview
  • Cross-validation
expand/collapseData Integration (s23367) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Cokriging
  • External Drift Kriging
  • Measurement Errors
expand/collapseConditional Simulation (s23371) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Conditional Simulation and Uncertainty Estimation
expand/collapsePublic Domain Geostatistics Programs (s23373) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseCase Studies (s23375) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Selected Published Geostatistical Case Studies
expand/collapseSelected Readings (s23377) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Books and Articles
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseGeostatistics Glossary (s23379) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Terminology

Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

expand/collapseSubsurface Facies Analysis (t48) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Reviews basic parameters in defining a facies--lithology, sedimentary structures, paleontology, geometry and associated environments. Discusses information sources, including cores, cuttings, well logs and seismic, and summarizes diagnostic features of major facies. Presents case studies on environmental diagnosis of productive sandstone and carbonate reservoirs.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseSedimentary Environments and Facies (s1043) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Environments and Depositional Systems
  • Lithofacies
  • Depositional Sequences
  • Environmental Indicators
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseLithology (s1044) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Lithological Analysis
  • Grain Size of Terrigenous Sediments
  • Chemistry of Terrigenous Sediments
  • Mineralogy of Terrigenous Sediments
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseSedimentary Structures, Geometry and Facies (s2611) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sedimentary Structures
  • Geometry
  • Associated Facies
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseMicrofossils as Paleoenviromental Indicators (s2612) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Use of Microfossils
  • Foraminifera
  • Ostracods
  • Other Common Microfossils
  • Trace Fossils
expand/collapseSources of Information (s1045) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Cores and Cuttings
  • Wireline Logs
  • Seismic Data
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseSandstone Reservoir Facies (s1046) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Alluvial Fans
  • Braided Streams
  • Meandering Stream Channels
  • Eolian Dunes
  • Lacustrine Deposits
  • Deltas
  • Fan Deltas
  • Coastal Barrier Islands
  • Continental Shelf Sands
  • Deep Sea Sands
  • Case Study: Marchand C Sandstone, Oklahoma
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseCarbonate Reservoir Facies (s1047) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Lithologic Parameters
  • Carbonate Rock Classifications
  • Dolomite
  • Analytical Methods and Procedures
  • Carbonate Shelf Model Overview
  • Coastal Setting
  • Shelf Setting
  • Shelf Margin Setting
  • Foreslope Setting
  • Basinal Setting
  • Case Study: San Andres Formation, Texas
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseSubsurface Facies Analysis: References and Additional Information (s1048) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseClassic Sequence Stratigraphy (t56) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Reviews a typical stratigraphic sequence, and examines each of its component systems tracts. Stresses the interplay between sea level and sediment supply and how this interplay affects depositional geometries. Presents a methodology for interpreting stratigraphic sequences, incorporating well, seismic and biostratigraphic data. Discusses current controversies and future trends.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseGeneral Concepts (s1095) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Sequence Stratigraphy
  • Stratigraphy
  • Seismic Stratigraphy
  • Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseCyclostratigraphy (s1096) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Types of Cycles
  • Duration of Stratigraphic Cycles
  • Events
  • Amplitudes and Scales
  • Causes of Cycles
  • Climactic Effects
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseThe Making of a Stratigraphic Sequence (s1097) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Interglacial Warm Period: Sea Level Highstand (HST)
  • Global Cooling Period: Falling Sea Level (SMST)
  • Glacial Maxima: Sea Level Lowstand (LST)
  • Global Warming Period: Rising Sea Level (TST)
  • Summary
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseSequence Stratigraphy (s1098) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Relative Sea Level Components and Accommodation Space
  • Depositional Geometries of Stratigraphic Sequences
  • Carbonate Model
  • Clastic Model: Overview
  • Clastic Model: Sequence Boundaries
  • Clastic Model: Lowstand Systems Tract (LST)
  • Clastic Model: Transgressive Systems Tract (TST)
  • Clastic Model: Highstand Systems Tract (HST)
  • Clastic Model: Shelf Margin Systems Tract (SMST)
  • Clastic Model: Maximum Flooding Surface (mfs)
  • Chronostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseInterpretation of Stratigraphic Sequences (s1099) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Integrated Interpretation Procedures
  • Seismic Profiles
  • Seismic Profiles (Example)
  • Well Logs and Cores
  • High-Resolution Biostratigraphy
  • Sea-Level Cycle Charts
  • Prediction of Lithofacies and Depositional Environments
  • Reservoir Exploitation and Production
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseConclusions and Current Controversies (s1100) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Sequence Stratigraphic Model
  • Nomenclature
  • Sea Level Curves and Global Eustasy
  • The Question of Data Bases
expand/collapseSequence Stratigraphy: References and Additional Information (s1101) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Glossary
expand/collapseStratigraphic Disciplines and Sequence Stratigraphy (t37151) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Since its inception, sequence stratigraphy has become the most commonly used stratigraphic discipline for developing a basinwide correlation framework, yet aspects of its methods and terminology remain controversial. This topic reviews the history and examines the models of base-level change that underlie the concept. The key surfaces (material- and time-based) and the units they delineate (sequences, systems tracts, and parasequences) are explained and exemplified. Hierarchy and causality are discussed in relation to eustacy and tectonics. Sequence stratigraphic principles are applied to correlation and facies analysis in the context of petroleum exploration. The perspective is that of Dr. Ashton Embry.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Stratigraphic Disciplines and Sequence Stratigraphy (s37152) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Stratigraphy and Stratigraphic Disciplines
  • Stratigraphic Surfaces and Time
  • Material-based Stratigraphic vs. Chronostratigraphy
  • Sequence Stratigraphy as a Stratigraphic Discipline
  • Theoretical Foundations for Stratigraphic Surfaces
expand/collapseHistorical Development of Sequence Stratigraphic Concepts and Methods (s37158) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Outcrop studies, pre-1977
  • Exxon Sequence Stratigraphic Model
  • Genetic Stratigraphic Sequence
  • Time-based Sequence Model
  • Transgressive-Regressive “T-R” Sequence
  • Another Time-based Depositional Sequence Boundary
  • Summary
  • References
expand/collapseMaterial-based Surfaces of Sequence Stratigraphy (s37167) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Material-based Surfaces
  • Subareial Unconformity
  • Regressive Surface of Marine Erosion (RSME)
  • Shoreline Ravinement (SR)
  • Maximum Regressive Surface (MRS)
  • Maximum Flooding Surface (MFS)
  • Slope Onlap Surface (SOS)
  • Sequence Stratigraphic Surface vs. Lithostratigraphic Surface
  • References
expand/collapseBase Level Change Model for the Generation of Sequence Stratigraphic Surfaces (s37176) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Base Level Change Introduction
  • Model Variance
  • References
expand/collapseTime-Based Surfaces of Sequence Stratigraphy (s37247) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Time Based Surfaces Introduction
  • Chronostratigraphic Surfaces
  • Old Surfaces / New Definitions
  • Conceptual Surfaces BSFR and CC
expand/collapseUnits of Sequence Stratigraphy - Sequences (s37252) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Genetic Stratigraphic Sequence
  • Introduction to the Depositional Stratigraphic Sequence
  • Determining the Validity of a Proposed Depositional Sequence Boundary
  • Exxon Material-based Depositional Sequence Boundaries
  • Valid, Material-based, Depositional Sequence Boundaries
  • Time-based Depositional Sequence Boundaries
  • Employing the Basal Surface of Forced Regression
  • Summary
expand/collapseUnits of Sequence Stratigraphy - Systems Tracts (s37261) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Systems Tracts Introduction
  • Material-based Approach with Three Systems Tracts
  • Material-based Approach with Two Systems Tracts
  • Time-based Approach for Systems Tracts
  • Time-based Approach with Four Systems Tracts
  • Time-based Approach with Three Systems Tracts
  • Summary of the Various Classification Schemes for Systems Tracts
expand/collapseUnits of Sequence Stratigraphy - Parasequences (s37268) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Parasequences Introduction
  • Parasequence as a Lithostratigraphic Unit
  • Parasequence versus Sequence
  • Summary
expand/collapseSequence Boundary Hierarchy (s37273) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sequence Boundary Introduction
  • Theoretical Hierarchy
  • Why a Theoretical Hierarchy is not Practical
  • Empirical Hierarchy
  • Assessing Sequence Boundary Magnitude
  • First and Second Order Boundaries
  • 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Order Boundaries
  • Greenhouse Boundaries versus Icehouse Boundaries
  • Establishing a Hierarchy for a Basin
  • Summary Sequence Boundary Hierarchy
expand/collapseBase Level Drivers (s37284) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Drivers of Base Level Change
  • Eustatic Sea Level Change as a Base Level Driver
  • Recognizing Eustatically - Generated Sequence Boundaries
  • Tectonics as a Base Level Driver
  • Extent of Tectonically - Generated Sequence Boundaries
  • Base Level Drivers Summary
expand/collapseCorrelation with Sequence Stratigraphy (s37292) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Sequence Stratigraphic Surfaces Useful for Correlation
  • Correlating Interbedded Nonmarine and Shallow Marine Strata
  • Correlation in Fluvial Strata
  • Correlating Deep Marine Siliciclastics
  • Correlating Carbonate Strata
  • Summary
expand/collapseSequence Stratigraphy - Facies Analysis Applied to Petroleum Geology (s37300) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Facies Analysis Introduction
  • Sequence Analysis and Facies Prediction
  • Concluding Remarks
expand/collapseSequence Stratigraphy: References and Additional Information (s37304) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional References
expand/collapseMicropaleontology For Petroleum Exploration (t36879) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This course is meant to introduce the disciplines of micropaleontology . Micropaleontology is a critical tool in developing a clear understanding of the three geologic factors which control hydrocarbon accumulation: reservoir, trap, and source. The overall intent is to develop your capability to competently and confidently employ these valuable tools in exploration and production. Upon completion of this course, you will possess a full appreciation of how micropaleontology is utilized and integrated together in petroleum exploration. Moreover, you will know what to expect from a micropaleontologist.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseOverview (s36882) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Reasons for employing biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment
  • What is covered in this course and what is not
expand/collapseModern Paleontology (s36883) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Why use micropaleontology
  • Biostratigraphy, zonation, resolution
  • Concepts, definitions, application, limitations
  • Factors affecting the quality of the biostratigraphic record
  • Biostratigraphic correlation
  • Caution in utilizing biostratigraphic correleation by itself
expand/collapsePetroleum and microfossils (s36884) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Some oceanography
  • Continental Margins
  • Microfossiles in paleoenvironmental studies
  • Paleobathymetry (depth zonation)
expand/collapseBiofacies (s36885) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Biofacies Analysis
  • Causes of difficulty (Pitfalls in biostratigraphic and biofacies analysis
  • Microfossils through geologic time
  • Habit of Petroleum
  • Deep-Sea Drilling and its contribution to Marine Geology and Micropaleontology
expand/collapseChronostratigraphy and Microfossils (t36880) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This course is meant to introduce the disciplines of chronostratigraphy. Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the relative time relations and ages of rock bodies. The overall intent is to develop your capability to competently and confidently employ these valuable tools in exploration and production. Upon completion of this course, you will possess a full appreciation of how chronostratigraphy contributes to the arsenal of tools utilized and integrated together in petroleum exploration.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseMicrofossil Datasheets (s36886) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Microfossils through geologic time
  • Microfossil Nomenclature
expand/collapseMicrofossil Collection and Preparation Techniques (s36887) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Samples, Cuttings and Cores
  • Microfossil Preparation Techniques
  • Microfossils Requiring Extractive Techniques
  • Sources of Contamination
expand/collapseChronostratigraphy and Geochronology (s36888) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Chronostratigraphic sections and international consensus
  • Emergence of the Absolute Time Scale
  • A new time scale
expand/collapseChronostratigraphy (s36889) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Isotope
  • Isotopes
  • Conventions
  • Oxygen Isotope Basics
  • Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy
  • Strontium Isotopes
expand/collapseChemostratigraphy (t37415) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: One of the main advantages of chemostratigraphy is its utility with strata of almost any age from any geological setting as diverse as carbonate platforms to tidal bar sandstones to deep marine turbidites. Chemostratigraphy is not restricted by lithology or sample type. It can be applied to samples of any lithology (including but not restricted to claystones, sandstones, volcaniclastics, coals, carbonates and evaporites) and equally as well in core, side wall, outcrop and well cutting samples, including turbine- drilled cuttings. Analyses can also be performed on a small amount of sample (minimum of 0.25 grams) where sample volumes are limited. The sample quality is most important, especially in well cuttings, so initial preparation involves ''picking” the desired lithology and washing to remove drilling fluid contamination prior to grinding and milling.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseAnalytical techniques for Chemical Properties of Strata (s37416) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Applications of Chemostratigraphy
expand/collapseChemostratigraphic Correlation Frameworks (s37419) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Chemostratigraphic Correlation Frameworks
  • Chemostratigraphic Correlation
expand/collapseCharacterization of Sedimentary Sequences  (s37422) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Characterization of Sedimentary Sequences Introduction
  • Organic-rich Turbidites
  • Volcanic Turbidites
  • Calcareous Turbidites
  • References
expand/collapseOngoing Development in Biostratigraphy (t36881) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This course is meant to introduce the disciplines of biostratigraphy. Biostratigraphy is simply defined as the use of fossils to determine the relative age of strata, i.e., rocks or sediments. The overall intent is to develop your capability to competently and confidently employ these valuable tools in exploration and production. Upon completion of this course, you will possess a full appreciation of how biostratigraphy is utilized and integrated together in petroleum exploration.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseSequence Biostratigraphy (s36890) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Unconformities
  • Sequences
  • High resolution sequence stratigraphy
  • Graphic Correlation
expand/collapseThermal Alteration Microfossiles (s36891) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Integrated Stratigraphic Analysis
expand/collapseConsultants Reports (s36892) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Selecting a Consultant
expand/collapseMagnetostratigraphy (t37005) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This course introduces the discipline of magnetostratigraphy, the branch of paleomagnetism that specifically studies the Earth’s ancient magnetic field. The course discusses the theory, magnetic mineralogy, the equipment and techniques used in the field and in the laboratory, practical applications, and a variety of other aspects of that could serve as valuable tools in hydrocarbon exploration. The most common application involves reversals in polarity that have occurred in Earth’s magnetic field throughout geologic time and how these can be used to establish the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) as a valid geochronometer. The course’s overall intent is to develop your capability to competently and confidently employ magnetostratigraphy in exploration and production. Upon completion of this course, you will better understand magnetostratigraphy’s uses and how it integrates with other disciplines in petroleum exploration.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseFundamentals of Magnetostratigraphy (s37006) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Theoretical
  • Magnetic Mineralogy
  • Magnetic Minerals
  • Other Ferromagnetic Minerals
expand/collapseMagnetic Domains (s37013) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Magnetization of Fine-grained Particles in Rocks
  • The Origin of Remanent Magnetization in Rocks
  • Remanent Magnetization
expand/collapseField Methods (s37017) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Field Methods
  • Analytical Equipment
  • Depositional Environments
  • General Age of the Strata
  • Sampling Procedures
  • Sampling Theory
  • Sampling in the Field
  • Hand sampling
  • Sampling with a Pomeroy Drill
  • Sampling for Age Calibration
expand/collapseTypes of Analytical Equipment (s37028) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Field Free Space
  • Cryogenic Magnetometer
  • Spinner magnetometer
  • Laboratory Techniques
  • Alternating Field Demagnetization Equipment
  • Thermal Demagnetization
  • Thermal Demagnetization Furnaces
  • Chemical Demagnetization
  • Determining the Demagnetization Techniques to be Used on a Suite of Samples
  • Graphical Techniques for Displaying Results
  • Identification of the Primary and Secondary Components of Remanence
  • Precision of the Data
  • Field Tests for Accuracy of the Paleomagnetic Data
  • Developing a Local Paleomagnetic Polarity Reversal Scale
  • Tectonic Interpretation of Basin Subsidence History
  • Downhole techniques
  • Applications in the Petroleum Industry
  • References Cited
expand/collapseGeochronological Dating Techniques (t37181) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: One of the most prolific methods of dating strata is through radiometric dating. In Petroleum Geology, the most common types of dating are those related to the decay of Potassium into Argon, Uranium, into Lead, and Thorium into Lead. All three types of decays are discussed, and the user will have a better understanding of the age equations used in radio dating. The user will also learn about Fission Track Dating, a tool that is used to determine both age and temperature of downhole conditions.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIsotopic Dating Techniques (s37182) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Isotopic Dating Introduction
  • K-Ar Dating
  • U-Pb and Th-Pb Dating
  • References
expand/collapseFission Track Dating (s37187) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Fission-Track Dating Introduction
  • Theory behind the Dating Technique
  • Criteria Essential for Apatite FTD Application
  • Sample Collection Field Methods
  • Laboratory Sample Preparation
  • Choosing the Grains
  • Dating the Sample: The External Detector Method
  • References

Structure, Tectonics and Rock Deformation

expand/collapsePetroleum Geomechanics (t38537) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

6 hours

(average of 60 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces geoscientists and engineers to the discipline of petroleum geomechanics. It will be demonstrated that geomechanics adds value in all phases of exploration, development and production. Provides a conceptual framework for petroleum geomechanics which emphasizes fundamental concepts, properties, Earth stresses and data inputs that contribute to Mechanical Earth Models (MEM).

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseFundamental Concepts of Geomechanics (s38538) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview of Geomechanics Concepts
  • Stress
  • Mohr's Circle
  • Strain
  • Linear Elasticity
  • Anisotropy
expand/collapseRock Deformation (s38547) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Rock Deformation Introduction
  • Elastic-Plastic Processes
  • Brittle Processes
  • Ductile Processes
  • Time-Dependent Processes
expand/collapseRock Mechanical Properties (s38614) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Rock Mechanical Properties
  • Laboratory Testing of Static and Elastic Properties
  • Laboratory Testing of Rock Strength
  • Geophysical Methods for Measuring Elastic Properties
  • Geophysical Methods for Estimating Rock Strength
expand/collapseEarth Stress (s38635) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Earth Stress
  • Determining the Contemporary State of Stress
  • Borehole Measurements
  • Observations on Stress in Sedimentary Rocks
  • Modeling Horizontal Stress
expand/collapseMechanical Earth Model (s38657) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Sources of Data
  • The Mechanical Earth Model (MEM)
  • MEM Workflow
expand/collapseApplications of Geomechanics (s38686) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Geomechanical Applications
  • Completion Applications: Sanding
  • Completion Applications - Hydraulic Fracturing
  • Completion Applications: Fracturing Horizontal Wells
  • Reservoir Geomechanics
expand/collapseStructural Geology (t37865) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

8 hours 33 minutes

(average of 57 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic surveys structural geology from a complete view of recent plate tectonic movement through the use of modeling of ancient tectonic processes. The topic includes: stress and strain, folds, faults, joints, and fractures. It also describes several structural styles, including those that involve compressional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Structures on non-tectonic origin and features involving gravity and salt tectonics are also explored in this topic.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseExamples of Recent Plate Tectonic Movement (s37866) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Plate Tectonic Movement Overview
  • Transform Fault Systems
  • Subduction Zones
  • Fold and Thrust Belts
  • Rifting Systems
expand/collapseStress and Strain  (s37893) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Stress and Strain Overview
  • Stress
  • Deformation and Strain
  • Strain Ellipsoid
  • Rock Strength
  • Mechanical Properties Logs as an Estimate of Formation Strength
expand/collapseFolds (s37874) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Folds
  • Description of Folds
  • Basic Fold Geometry and Orientation
  • Fold Mechanisms and the Distribution of Strain
  • Minor Structures Associated with Folding
  • Pressure Solution and Stylolitization
expand/collapseFaults (s37883) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Faults Overview
  • Dip Slip and Strike Slip Faults
  • Fault and Fault Zone Material: Sealing and Communication Aspects
  • Structures Associated with Faults
  • Principle Stress Directions in the Development of Faulting and Fracturing
  • Thrust Faults, Tear Faults, and Transform Faults
  • Recognizing Faults in Well Logs
expand/collapseJoints and Fractures (s37902) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Joints and Fractures Overview
  • Influence of Lithology and Bed Thickness
  • Basic Techniques for Determining Fracture Orientation
  • Fault Associated Fractures
  • Fold Associated Fractures
  • Wellbore Breakouts and In Situ Stress
expand/collapseUnconformities and Structures of Non-Tectonic Origin (s37911) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Importance of Unconformities
  • Recognizing Unconformities
  • Structures of Non-tectonic Origin
expand/collapseStructural Styles: Tectonic (s37961) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Tectonic Structural Styles Overview
  • Classification of Extensional, Compressional, and Strike-Slip Styles
  • Extensional Styles: Basement Involved
  • Extensional Styles: Basement Not Involved
  • Compressional Styles: Basement Involved
  • Compressional Styles: Basement Not Involved
  • Strike-Slip Tectonics: Wrench Faults
expand/collapseStructural Styles: Non-Tectonic and Intracratonic (s37971) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Non-Tectonic and Intracratonic Structural Styles
  • Differential Loading: Salt Tectonics
  • Differential Loading: Shale Structures
  • Differential Loading: Gravity Structures
  • Intracratonic (Vertical) Tectonics: Basement Warps
expand/collapseProcess Modeling of Structural Geology (s37981) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Purpose of Modeling
  • Restoration Techniques
  • Laboratory Experiments and Analogue Modeling
  • Numerical Modeling
  • Process Modeling and Compressional Structural Styles
  • Process Modeling and Extensional Structural Styles
  • Process Modeling and Strike-Slip Structural Styles
expand/collapsePlate Tectonics and Sedimentary Basins  (t38315) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

5 hours

(average of 100 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic presents the concepts and classification of plate tectonics as applied to petroleum exploration. Modeling techniques are used to examine tectonics processes and their involvement in the development of sedimentary basins. Also described are the sedimentary facies patterns that are associated with tectonic influences and the effects of hydrocarbon systems.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Basins (s38316) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Plate Tectonics and Petroleum Geology
  • Basic Concepts of Plate Tectonics
  • Plate Tectonic Model Introduction
  • Divergent Plate Boundaries
  • Convergent Plate Boundaries
  • Transform Plate Boundaries
expand/collapsePlate Tectonics  (s38333) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Evidence for Plate Tectonics
  • Plate Motion
  • Paleogeographic Reconstructions
  • The Cyclicity of Plate Tectonics: The Wilson Cycle
  • Plate Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Exploration
expand/collapseSedimentary Basins (s38354) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Geological Characteristics
  • Basin Analysis and Petroleum Systems
  • Mechanisms of Basin Formation
  • Stratigraphy and Depositional Patterns
  • Basin Classification and Hydrocarbons
expand/collapseDivergent Margins and Rift Basins (t59) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Applies tectonic concepts learned in GL601 and 602, focusing on petroleum habitats in divergent margin and rift basins. Discusses theories of rifting and its effect on sedimentation. Classifies rift basins and examines each type through present day examples.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseSedimentary Basins and Continental Margins (s1116) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Divergent Margins
  • Transtensional Margins
  • Convergent Margins
  • Rift Basins
  • Sag Basins
expand/collapsePetroleum Habitat (s1117) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Source Beds, Traps and Reservoirs
  • Thermal Maturation
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseRifting and Basin Development (s1118) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Geophysical Expressions
  • Rift Development Theories
  • Mechanics of Rifting
  • Tectonics and Divergent Margin and Rift Basin Development
  • Subsidence in Convergent Margin and Rift Basin
  • Sedimentary Processes: Overview
  • Sedimentary Processes During Rifting and Extension
  • Development of Passive Margin Sequences
  • Sedimentary Patterns: Influencing Factors
  • Classification of Divergent Margin and Rift Basins
expand/collapseStructural Styles and Trapping Mechanisms (s1909) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Normal and Transfer Faulting
  • Subsidence-Related Structures
  • Salt Structures
expand/collapseNonmarine Basins in the Continental Interior (s1119) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Eastern China
  • Rhein Graben
  • Sudan
  • East Africa
  • Rio Grande Rift
  • Dead Sea Rift
  • Yemen
  • Benue Rift
expand/collapseMarine Basins in the Continental Interior (s1120) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • North Sea Region
  • West Siberian Basin
  • Sirte Basin
  • Gulf of Suez
  • Michigan Basin (and Similar Basins)
expand/collapseProto-Oceanic Basins (s1121) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden
expand/collapseSubsided Divergent Margins (s1122) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Niger Delta Basin
  • Ivory Coast
  • North Atlantic
  • South Atlantic
  • Australia
  • India
  • Gulf of Mexico
expand/collapseExploration Considerations (s1910) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Guidelines
expand/collapseDivergent Margins and Rift Basins: Reference Section (s1911) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseConvergent Margin Basins (t60) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Places convergent margins in a plate tectonic setting and examines general characteristics. Relates petroleum habitats to theories of basin development. Classifies convergent margin basins and presents examples. Proposes a strategy for petroleum exploration in convergent margin basins.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseConvergent Margins (s1123) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Placement in the Plate Tectonic System
  • General Characteristics
  • Significance in Petroleum Geology
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseBasin Classification and Development (s1124) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Crustal Layering
  • B-Type (Benioff, or Sumatra-Type) Basins
  • A-Type (Alpine, or Mediterranean-Type) Basins
  • Andean-Type Basins
expand/collapseBasin Development (s1127) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Process Description
  • Trenches
  • Accretionary Wedges
  • Forearc Basins
  • Backarc Basins
  • Variations in Subduction Zones
  • Heat Variations vs. Faulting
  • Basin Development on Cratons and Divergent Margins
  • Basin Development Models
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseForeland Basins and Associated Structures (s1128) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Quantitative Modeling of Basin Dynamics
  • Development Models: Appalachian Basin
  • Fault Bend, Fault Propagation and Detachment Folds
  • Duplexes and Imbricate Thrust Systems
  • Piggy-Back Basins
  • Other Structural Features
expand/collapsePetroleum Habitat (s1125) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sedimentation and Structure
  • Petroleum Generation
  • Petroleum Migration
  • Petroleum Entrapment
expand/collapseConvergent Tectonic Regimes (s1126) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sumatra/Java
  • Japan
  • Alaska: Cook Inlet Basin
  • California
  • Arkoma Basin, South-Central U.S.
  • Makran Coast, Iran/Pakistan
  • Carpathian Arc
  • Central and Southern Alps and Apennies
  • Caribbean Subduction Complex
  • Papua-New Guinea
  • Zagros Trend
  • Andean Belt
expand/collapseExploration Considerations (s1129) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Approach
expand/collapseConvergent Margin Basins: References and Additional Information (s2621) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading

Geochemistry

expand/collapseIntroduction to Petroleum Chemistry (t61) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Focuses on characteristics and chemical makeup of petroleum, tracing maturation of organic matter to petroleum. Emphasizes development of kerogen and bitumen as transitional steps, and explains modification of intermediate materials during diagenesis, catagenesis, and metagenesis in response to increasing subsurface temperature. Presents examples of source-rock studies, crude-oil correlations and crude oil-source rock parings.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapsePetroleum (s1130) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Organic Orgin
  • Properties and Composition
  • Principal Subdivisions
  • Application of Data
  • Geochemical Base
  • API Gravity
expand/collapseHydrocarbon Groups (s1131) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkanes)
  • Normal Alkanes
  • Branched Alkanes
  • Cycloalkanes
  • Unsaturated Hydrocarbons (Arenes)
  • Applications of Saturated Hydrocarbon Data
  • Applications of Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Data
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseResins (s1134) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Description
  • Heteroatom Designations
  • Heterocompound Designations
  • Applications of Resin Data
expand/collapseAsphaltenes (s1135) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Description
  • Designations
  • Applications of Asphaltene Data
expand/collapseOrganic Matter: Progenitor of Petroleum (s1137) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Carbon Cycle
  • Biological Processes
  • Preservation Processes
  • Composition of Organic Matter
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseOrganic Matter Maturation (s1138) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Diagenesis
  • Kerogen Classification
  • Products of Diagenesis
  • Catagenesis and Metagenesis
  • Process Overview
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseGeochemical Evaluation Overview (s1139) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Source Rock Studies
  • Correlation Studies
expand/collapseSource Potential (Inherent) (s1140) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Kerogen Richness
  • Kerogen Proneness
expand/collapseSource Potential (Realized): Kerogen Evaluation (s5193) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Thermal Alteration Index
  • Conodont Alteration Index
  • Vitrinite Reflectance
  • Fluorescence
  • Pyrolysis
expand/collapseSource Potential (Realized): Bitumen/ Petroleum Evaluation (s5194) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Gaseous Hydrocarbons
  • Liquid Hydrocarbons
  • Maturation Characteristics
expand/collapseCorrelation Studies (s5195) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Specific Discriminating Properties
  • Broad Data Assemblages
expand/collapseIntroduction to Petroleum Chemistry: References and Additional Information (s1141) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Additional Reading
  • Calculation Procedures
expand/collapseApplications of Petroleum Geochemistry (t62) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Demonstrates uses and limitations of geochemical techniques and their importance in exploration and production. Presents appropriate sample selection and preparation, as well as analytical techniques used in laboratories. Reviews and integrates basic source rock and crude oil evaluation programs into more advanced basin study and modeling programs.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseGeochemical Prospecting (s36941) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Geochemical Prospecting
  • Concepts of Geochemical Prospecting
  • Adsorbed Gas Survey in Integrated Exploration
  • Interpretation of Geochemical Prospecting
  • Advantages of Geochemical Prospecting
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
expand/collapseGeochemical Analyses: Kerogen (s1142) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Organic Carbon Content
  • Maceral Separation
  • Chemical Composition: General Considerations
  • Chemical Composition: Elemental Analysis
  • Chemical Composition: Pyrolysis
  • Special Analyses
expand/collapseGeochemical Analyses: Bitumen/ Petroleum (s1143) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Extraction Techniques
  • Separation Techniques: Asphaltene Precipitation
  • Separation Techniques: Chromotography
  • Separation Techniques: Mass Spectrometry
  • Special Analyses
expand/collapseGeochemical Analyses: Analytical Procedures (s1144) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Organic Carbon Determination
  • Kerogen Separation
  • Kerogen Typing
  • Kerogen Reflectance
  • Elemental Determination
  • Pyrolysis Analysis
  • Pyrolysate Characterization
  • Sample Degassing
  • Micronization Extraction
  • Solvent Extraction
  • Asphaltene Precipitation
  • Liquid Chromotography
  • Gas Chromotography
expand/collapseGeochemical Analyses: Sample Types (s1145) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Guidelines
  • Outcrop Samples
  • Cuttings Samples
  • Core Samples
  • Petroleum Samples
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseGeochemical Analyses: Sampling Procedures (s1146) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Outcrop Specimens
  • Dried Cuttings
  • Canned Cuttings
  • Stored Core
  • Gas Emanations
  • Crude Oil
  • Pressurized Gas
expand/collapseGeochemical Programs in Petroleum Exploration (s1147) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Program Feasibility
  • General Program Sequence
  • Screening Analytical Phase
  • Detailed Analytical Phase
  • Final Interpretation Phase
  • Scheduling and Costs
expand/collapseGeochemistry and Basin Evaluation (s4662) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Analytical Basin Studies
  • Thermal History Basin Studies
  • Mathematical Basin Studies
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseGeochemical Problem Solving (s4663) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Biomarker Applications and Molecular Configurations
  • Biomarker Interpretation
  • Migration Effects
  • Biodegradation and Alteration of Crude Oil
  • Less Common Source Rocks
  • Geochemical Prospecting
  • Concepts
  • Interpretation
  • Advantages
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseApplications of Petroleum Geochemistry: References and Additional Information (s4664) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References

Petroleum Technology for the Non-Engineer

expand/collapseDrilling and Well Completion (t40) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Presents the integration of drilling and well completion technology in an overall development program, showing the equipment and procedures involved as operations are carried out. Focuses on the responsibilities of individuals and service companies at the drillsite.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseDrilling Fundamentals (s1148) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Historical Background
  • Surface Drilling Environments
  • Subsurface Drilling Environments
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseRotary Drilling Rig Components (s1149) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Rig Types
  • Basic Rig Functions
  • Hoisting and Rotating Systems
  • Circulating System
  • Well Control System
  • Power Generation/Transmission System
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDrillstring, Drill Bits and Drilling Fluid (s1150) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Drillstring
  • Drill Bits
  • Drilling Fluids
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDrilling Operations (s1151) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Planning and Site Preparation
  • Operations Management
  • Drilling Procedure
  • Drilling Problems
  • Well Control
  • Well Evaluation
  • Offshore Drilling
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseWell Completion Technology (s1152) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Completion Methods
  • Completion Procedures
  • Perforation of Cased-Hole Completions
  • Stimulation
  • Sand Control
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseCase Histories, Drilling and Completion Programs (s1153) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Permian Basin, West Texas
  • Prudhoe Bay, Alaska
  • Ekofisk Field, Norwegian North Sea
  • Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia
expand/collapseDrilling and Well Completion: References and Additional Information (s1154) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Glossary of Drilling Report Abbreviations
expand/collapseProduction Technology (t41) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes the production technology techniques used to maximize production. Once production begins, the reservoir is only a part of a larger system, and understanding the relationships among all elements--the wellbore, tubing string, artificial lift equipment, surface control devices, separators, treaters, tanks and measuring devices--is crucial to economical and safe recovery.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseWell Completions (s1156) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Casing and Tubing
  • Downhole Configurations
  • Subsurface Completion Equipment
  • Wellhead and Surface Flow Control Equipment
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseSurface Production Facilities (s1157) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Separation
  • Oil Treatment
  • Oil Metering
  • Gas Treatment and Compression
  • Gas Metering
  • Water Treatment and Disposal
  • Offshore Considerations
  • Field Examples of Production Systems Worldwide
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseProduction System Performance (s1158) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • System Components
  • Inflow Performance
  • Vertical Lift Performance
  • Surface Flow Performance
  • Total System Pressure Loss
  • Gas Well Performance
  • Production System Design Example
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseArtificial Lift (s1159) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Gas Lift
  • Subsurface Pumping
  • Examples of Artificial Lift Applications
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseProduction Technology: References and Additional Information (s1160) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseReservoir Management (t993) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes the reservoir management techniques used to maximize production. Once production begins, the reservoir is only a part of a larger system, and understanding the relationships among all elements--the wellbore, tubing string, artificial lift equipment, surface control devices, separators, treaters, tanks and measuring devices--is crucial to economical and safe recovery.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseRock and Fluid Properties (s1161) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Porosity
  • Permeability
  • Fluid Phase Behavior
  • Fluid Density, Viscosity and Compressibility
  • Wettability and Capillary Pressure
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseNatural Drive Mechanisms in Petroleum Reservoirs (s1162) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Natural Drive Mechanisms
  • Solution Gas Drive
  • Gas Cap Drive
  • Water Drive
  • Gravity Drainage
  • Gas and Gas Condensate Reservoirs
  • Material Balance Relationships
expand/collapseImproved Oil Recovery (s1163) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Waterflooding and Recovery Efficiency
  • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
  • Chemical EOR Processes
  • Thermal EOR Processes
  • Miscible EOR Processes
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseReservoir Simulation (s1164) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basis for Reservoir Modeling
expand/collapseReservoir Management: References and Additional Information (s1165) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseGeosteering: Fundamentals, Planning, and Implementation (t36018) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: GeoSteering is the application of geologic and engineering skill to direct a horizontal or extended-reach wellbore path, based upon knowledge of the enclosing stratigraphy, with the expressed aim of maximizing wellbore exposure to the target reservoir. This TOpic reviews valuable insights into the GeoSteering process, provided by a leading company with experience gained over the course of steering nearly 2000 horizontal wells.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseDirectional Drilling: The Driving Force in Geosteering (s36019) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Geosteering Overview
  • Directional Drilling Candidates
  • Directional Drilling Hardware: The Bottom Hole Assembly
  • Controlling Trajectory of Directional Wells
  • Directional Drilling Sections
  • Directional Drilling Terminology
expand/collapseDrilling Measurements and Logging Tools (s36026) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Drilling Measurements and Sampling
  • Logging While Drilling Tools
expand/collapsePreparing the Geosteering Plan (s36029) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Know the Target Reservoir
  • The Optimal Geosteering Plan
  • Uncertainty Planning
  • Handling Unexpected Changes in Geology
expand/collapseGeosteering Practices (s36034) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Four Keys to Geosteering Success
  • Geosteering Interpretation Techniques
  • Communication of Target Changes at the Wellsite
  • Common Geosteering Mistakes and How to Avoid them
expand/collapseCase Study (s36039) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Case Study: Increasing Deliverability from a Gas Storage Field
  • Geosteering in Fractured Carbonates
expand/collapseGeosteering: Fundamentals, Planning, and Implementation: References and Add (s36042) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseBest Practices (s36056) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Geosteering Best Practices

Basin and Play Analysis

expand/collapseBasin Analysis (t64) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: A complete introduction to basin evolution and evaluation. Discusses basin formation processes, geodynamic models, source rocks, maturation, migration, and sedimentary basin models. Presents the impact of basin models on prospect generation, measurement of basin histories and properties, and the principles and application of various basin evaluation methods. Refers to case studies for analysis and summary.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseBasin Analysis and Petroleum Analysis (s1173) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
expand/collapseBasin Formation Processes (s1174) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Rheology
  • Layered Earth Structure
  • Mechanical and Thermal Loads
  • Load Response: Airy Isostasy Compensation Model
  • Load Response: Flexural Compensation Model
  • Measuring Compensation, Loads and Deflections
  • Rheology and Subsidence Histories
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseGeodynamic Models (s1175) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Kinematic Cooling Models Overview
  • McKenzie Stretching Model
  • McKenzie Model Derivatives
  • Other Cooling Models
  • Cooling Model Examples
  • Tectonostratigraphic Coupling
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseSource Rocks (s1176) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Formation and Preservation of Organic Matter
  • Diagenesis of Organic Matter
  • Hydrocarbons and Kerogen Types
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseMaturation Processes (s1177) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Kerogen Maturation
  • Depth, Temperature and Time Effects
  • Paleothermometry
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseSedimentary Basin Models (s1178) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Quantitative Dynamic Stratigraphy
  • Forward and Inverse Models
  • Characteristics and Limitations
  • Geodynamic Models
  • Sedimentation Models
  • Stratigraphic Models
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseProspect Generation (s1179) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Frontier vs. Mature Basins
  • Impact of Information
  • Impact of Stratigraphic Models
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseBasin Histories and Properties (s1180) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Time and Events in Basin History
  • Walther's Law of Facies Successions
  • Geohistory, Backstrip Analyses
  • Geohistory, Backstrip Diagram Corrections
  • Alternative Decompaction Approaches
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseMathematical Basin Analysis Models (s1181) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Backstripping Models
  • Geodynamic and Thermal Models
  • Model Calibration
  • Maturation Modeling
  • Migration Modeling
  • Thermodynamic Modeling
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseStratigraphic Basin Analysis Models (s1182) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Sequence Stratigraphic Models
  • Seismic Facies Analysis
expand/collapseBasin Analysis Case Studies (s5202) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Taranaki Basin, New Zealand
expand/collapseBasin Analysis: References and Additional Information (s5203) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapsePlay Analysis (t65) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Examines the critical elements of play analysis and evaluation, including play controls for structural styles and depositional systems as well as the elements of reservoir, source, seal, trap maturation and migration, and economic considerations. Discusses the data requirements of play analysis and the planning and evolution of the play summary. Presents various examples and case studies from both frontier and developed basins.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapsePlay Analysis Introduction (s1183) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Definitions and Objectives
expand/collapsePlay Elements (s1184) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Play Elements Overview
  • Source
  • Maturation
  • Reservoir
  • Migration
  • Seal and Trap
  • Unconventional Plays
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
  • Exercise No. 7
expand/collapsePlay Controls (s1185) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Basin Classifications
  • Structural Styles
  • Depositional Systems: Overview
  • Clastic Depositional Systems
  • Carbonate Depositional Systems
  • Evaporite Depositional Systems
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
expand/collapsePlay Analysis Methods (s1186) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Sources of Information
  • Play Summary Development
  • Play Summary Presentation
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseRisk Analysis (s1187) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Conventional Play Example
  • Unconventional Play Example
expand/collapsePlay Analysis Case Histories (s5204) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sudan Rift Basin
  • Lower Indus Basin
  • Marib Basin, Yemen
  • Eolian Stratigraphic Traps, San Juan Basin, USA
  • Deep Basin Gas Trap, Western Canada
  • Coalbed Methane, San Juan Basin, New Mexico
  • Shale Gas: Barnett Shale, Texas
expand/collapsePlay Analysis: References and Additional Information (s5205) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading

Surface Tools and Methods

expand/collapsePhotogeology and Remote Sensing (t63) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes the physical principles of the major remote sensing techniques, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of each during application. Discusses aerial photographs, Landsat images, SPOT images, and thermal infrared and radar techniques. Includes a glossary of remote sensing terms, and interpretation projects for each technique which relate remote surveys to other geological data.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseRemote Sensing Fundamentals (s1166) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Electromagnetic Energy and Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Interaction Mechanisms
  • Image Characteristics
  • Types of Remote Sensing Systems
expand/collapseAerial Photographs from Aircraft and Satellites (s1167) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics
  • Photomosaics
  • Stereo Pairs and Photogeology Interpretation Example: Wyoming, USA
  • Low Sun-Angle Photographs
  • Normal and IR Color Photographs
  • High-Altitude Photographs and Photographs from Space
expand/collapseLandsat Satellite Images (s1168) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Satellite Orbit Patterns
  • Image Index System
  • Landsat Satellites
  • Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS)
  • Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI)
  • Landsat TM Image Geologic Interpretation Example: Wyoming, USA
  • Landsat TM Image Geologic Interpretation Example: Irian Jaya, Indonesia
  • Image Processing
  • Additional Examples of Landsat Geologic Interpretation Projects
expand/collapseOther Earth Resource Satellite Images: SPOT, JERS-1, IRS, and RESURS (Resource) (s1169) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • SPOT Satellite (France)
  • SPOT Image Geologic Interpretation Example: Algeria 
  • SPOT Stereo Images
  • SPOT Stereo Pair Geologic Interpretation Example: Wyoming, USA 
  • Comparison of SPOT and Landsat Images
  • JERS-1 Satellite (Japan)
  • IRS Satellites (India)
  • RESURS (Resource) Satellites (Russia)
expand/collapseThermal Infrared Images (s1170) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Thermal Properties and Processes
  • Thermal IR Image Geologic Interpretation Examples
  • Landsat Thermal IR Images
  • Other Thermal IR Systems
expand/collapseRadar Images (s1171) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Aircraft Radar Systems
  • Stereo Pair Radar Images
  • Radar Image Characteristics: Look direction
  • Radar Image Characteristics: Highlights and Shadows
  • Radar Image Characteristics: Image Foreshortening (Layover)
  • Radar Image Characteristics: Dielectric Properties and Backscatter Coefficient
  • Radar Image Characteristics: Surface Roughness
  • Radar Image Characteristics: Polarization and Interferometry
  • Satellite and Spacecraft Radar Systems
  • Radar Interaction in Forested and Vegetated Terrain
  • Radar Geologic Interpretation Example of Tropical Terrain: Irian Jaya, Indonesia
  • Radar Geologic Interpretation Example of Desert Terrain: Eastern Sahara, Sudan
expand/collapseRemote Sensing Applied To Petroleum Geology (s37600) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Swamp Terrain in Equatorial Africa Exploration Project
  • Papua New Guinea Exploration Project
  • Central Arabian Arch Exploration Project
  • Summary
expand/collapseReferences and Additional Information: Photogeology and Remote Sensing (s1172) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Remote Sensing Internet Resources
  • Sources of Remote Sensing Imagery
  • Glossary
expand/collapseGeographical Information Systems (t36166) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic examines the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in the oil and gas industry. Beginning with an overview of GIS design and applications and a description of Geodetic Frameworks, it examines the type of information contained in a typical oil and gas GIS. Case studies and examples are presented relating to a variety of GIS systems, and an Appendix of GIS-related websites is included to help users find the most up-to-date information in this important area.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Geographical Information Systems (s36168) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Content Outline
expand/collapseGIS Design and Systems (s36172) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Principles of GIS Design
  • Types of Data
  • Typical GIS Systems and Structures
expand/collapseGeodetic Frameworks (s36176) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Background
  • Datums
  • Ellipsoids
  • Projections
  • Height Datum
  • Line Definitions
expand/collapseGeneral and Background GIS Data (s36183) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Raster and Vector Data
  • Digital Elevation Models
  • Historical Data
expand/collapseExploration and Production GIS Data (s36188) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exploration Phase
  • Production Phase
  • Attributes and Associated Data
expand/collapseExamples and Case Studies (s36192) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Use
  • Ongoing Management and Development
  • Pipeline Route Study
  • Concession Blocks and International Boundaries
  • Management of Exploration Operations
  • Management of Production Operations
  • GIS Support for an Offshore Trunkline
  • GIS Case Study: XYZ Oil Corporation
expand/collapseGeographical Information Systems: References and Additional Information (s36201) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Websites
  • Glossary of GIS Terms
  • Acknowledgement

Petroleum Geophysics

Introductory Topics and Seismic Signals

expand/collapseFundamentals of Exploration Geophysics (t37759) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic surveys geophysics from a historical perspective, as well as the evolution of the geophysicist through acquisition, processing, and interpretation. An examination of geologic elements are explored for a better understanding of hydrocarbon accumulations. Reflection seismology is introduced as a tool for integrating seismic data in oil and gas exploration.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapsePetroleum Geophysics Overview (s37760) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • History of Geophysics
  • The Evolution of the Geophysicist
  • The Evolution of Seismic Technology
  • Finding Hydrocarbon Accumulations
expand/collapseSeismic Methods  (s37775) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Seismology
  • Seismic Wave Types
expand/collapseSignal Theory (t38060) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

6 hours 15 minutes

(average of 75 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the key principles of signal theory and the application of sampling precision, frequency and signal reconstruction. Explores the characteristics of waveforms, line, phase and amplitude spectra, the minimum phase spectrum, sinusoid addition, generation of harmonics, the Fourier series and the Fourier integral. Outlines the characteristics of linear and nonlinear systems. Provides an overview of general operator responses, explores the concepts of superposition, convolution, integration, and differentiation and the mechanics of filter theory. Addresses the importance of the signal-to-noise ratio and how it can be improved, provides an explanation of the processes of filtering, stacking and deconvolution and the ideal situations when each process should be employed. Defines the correlation, cross-correlation and auto-correlation functions, the impulse response of a system, and the application of pulse compression to increase resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseSignal Theory Introduction (s38061) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Signal Theory Introduction
  • Digital Representation of Waveforms
  • Sampling Precision
  • Sampling Frequency
  • Signal Reconstruction
expand/collapseWaveform Theory (s38069) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Single Sinusoid Waveform
  • Adding Sinusoids
  • Adding Harmonics and the Fourier Series
  • Line Spectra
  • Fourier Integral
  • Amplitude Spectrum
  • Phase Spectrum
  • Phase Spectra
  • Minimum Phase Spectrum
  • Summary of Waveform Characteristics
expand/collapseOperators (s38084) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Linearity
  • Frequency Response of Linear Operators
  • Time Response of Linear Operators
  • Superposition and Convolution
  • The Complete Fourier Series
  • Differentiation of Waveform
  • Integration of Waveforms
  • Differentiation and Integration Relations
  • Filters
expand/collapseSignal Improvement (s38117) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio
  • Filtering and Stacking
  • Deconvolution
  • Signal Improvement Summary
expand/collapseCorrelation Techniques (s38278) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Cross-correlation Function
  • Auto-correlation Function
  • Pulse Compression Technique
  • System Impulse Response
  • Auto-correlation Application
expand/collapseSeismic Pulse (t38289) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 24 minutes

(average of 66 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Provides an overview of the source signal components, and examines the source signatures and amplitude spectra of several different seismic sources. Reviews properties of the seismic pulse, explores measurement of source array responses, compares wavefront and ray properties, and discusses how acoustic impedance and particle velocity can be used to infer subsurface rock types. Discusses the processes of seismic decay, specifically geometrical spreading, attenuation, absorption and scattering, and their effect on the source signature. Examines small source and near field effects, and how to compensate for signal loss. Provides an overview of ray tracing laws and principles, specifically Snell’s Law, Fermat’s Principle, Huygens’ Principle, Huygens’ - Fermat’s Principle, and the Principle of Reciprocity. Supplies ray theory formulas, and explains how to construct wavefront counterparts from rays.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseSource Signal Theory  (s38290) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Source Theory
  • Explosive Source Types
  • Impulsive Surface Sources
  • Marine Sources
expand/collapseAttributes of the Seismic Pulse (s38301) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Source Array Response
  • Measurement of the Source Array Response
  • Acoustic Impedance and Particle Velocity in Rock
expand/collapseThe Propagating Pulse (s38308) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Source Signature
  • Spherical Spreading
  • Attenuation and Absorption
  • Scattering
expand/collapseSeismic Ray Theory (s38325) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Snell's Law and Fermat's Principle
  • Huygens' Principle
  • Ray Tracing
expand/collapseWaveform to Geologic Model  (t37918) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

5 hours

(average of 60 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Explores the relationship between geological and seismic properties. Uses seismic stratigraphy to describe the seismic reflection patterns of depositional environments, how to recognize source rocks, reservoir rocks and seals, and how to infer burial history, likely saturant and geologic age.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseRock Properties and the Seismic Response (s37919) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Define Measured Seismic Attributes and Rock Properties
  • Forward Modeling Overview
  • Full Wave Imaging
expand/collapseRock Properties and Seismic Velocity (s37926) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Relating Seismic Velocity to Density in a Thin Section
  • Defining Shear Velocity
  • Shear Velocity and Grain Contacts
  • Defining Compressional Velocity
  • Compressional Velocity and Grain Contacts
  • Using Compressional/Shear Velocity Ratio to Define Velocity
expand/collapseRock Properties and the Velocity-Density Relationship (s37936) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Velocity-Density Relationship
  • Factors Affecting the Velocity-Density Relationship
  • Velocity-Density in Shales
  • Velocity-Density Relationship in Sandstones
  • Density in Carbonates and Other Rocks
expand/collapseRock Properties and Seismic Attributes (s37945) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Seismic Attributes
  • Defining Geology with Time Based Attributes
  • Changes in Velocity
  • Reflection Strength Attributes
  • Reflection Polarity and Character
expand/collapseCorrelating Seismic Data to Geologic Events (s37954) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Seismic Interpretation
  • Seismic Stratigraphy
  • Detecting Oil and Gas
expand/collapseSeismic Reflection (t38376) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

5 hours 24 minutes

(average of 81 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Explains seismic reflection theory and how it is useful for understanding seismic events. Presents the different types of multiples in seismic records, describes how they are formed, how they can interfere with primary reflectors, and explains what processes eliminate them. Identifies specific depositional environments and correlates these to seismic reflection complexes. Relates geologic stratigraphy to seismic data reflection responses. Describes basic refraction theory and key concepts, such as the critical angle, low speed layers, hidden layers and dipping layers. Distinguishes the best uses for mode conversion methods and why the concept of Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) is important.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseReflection Theory (s38377) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Reflection Concepts
  • Reflection at Normal Incidence
  • Transmission at Normal Incidence
  • Convolution and Superposition Models
  • The Fresnel Zone
expand/collapseDiffuse Reflections and Multiples (s38435) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Diffuse Reflections
  • Buried Focus Effect
  • Transmission Decay and Reflection
  • Introduction to Multiples
  • Types of Multiples
expand/collapseReflection and Geologic Interfaces (s38443) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Geological Interface Overview
  • The Tuning Effect
  • Non-Depositional Reflectors
  • Depositional Reflectors
expand/collapseRefraction Theory & Non-Normal Incidence (s38491) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Basic Theory of Seismic Refraction
  • Refraction Interpretation Methods
  • Non-Normal Incidence
  • Mode Conversion
  • Practical Uses for Mode Conversion

Seismic Instruments and Field Techniques

expand/collapseIntroduction to Field Work (t72) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

6 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the field aspects of reflection seismology, examining seismic exploration in the field on land, at sea, and in between. Describes elements of seismic operation instruments, locations, people and steps taken by seismic crews to record high quality data.

Details various tasks and environments peculiar to land-oriented field work. Emphasizes use of explosive sources and safety of operations. Stresses public relations due to direct impact of land work on land owners, lessees and political bodies.

Analyzes field work at sea and in the transition zone. Examines equipment, costs and special problems, hazards, requirements and advantages of field work in marine settings. Particular attention is paid to navigational systems.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseIntroduction to Field Work (s1219) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseImproving the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (s1220) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Ambient Noise Reduction
  • Coherent Noise Reduction
  • Scattered Noise Reduction
  • Arrays and Groups
  • Ghost Reflections
expand/collapseMultiple Coverage in Action (s1221) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Multiple Coverage Assumptions
  • 2D Coverage
  • 3D Coverage
  • Converted Wave
expand/collapseRecording Instruments (s1222) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Station Selection
  • Amplification
  • Fine Tuning the Signal
  • Recording
  • Wireless Recording Systems
  • Equipment Testing
  • The Total System
expand/collapseThe Land Seismic Source (s1223) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Explosive Sources
  • Other Shooting Methods
  • Non Explosive Sources
expand/collapseThe Land Seismic Receiver (s6004) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseThe Seismic Record (s6005) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Event Identification
  • Spatial Sampling
expand/collapseAcquisition Constraints (s6006) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Typical Numbers
expand/collapseMaps and Imagery in Seismic Planning (s37243) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Maps and Imagery in Seismic Planning
  • Google Earth and Mapping Tools
expand/collapseCosts and Contracts (s6007) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Contractual Considerations
  • Typical Seismic Contract.
expand/collapseMarine Work (s6008) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Typical Seismic Vessel Specifications
  • Seismic Vessel Overview
  • Shipboard Processing
  • Marine Streamers and Recording Instruments
  • Streamer Maintenance
  • Marine Seismic Source
  • Water Guns
  • Source Signatures
expand/collapseThe Transition Zone (s6009) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Making the Transition
  • Special Equipment
expand/collapseMulti-Component Data (s6010) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseOrganization of the Field Crew (s6011) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Organizing the Field Crew
expand/collapseSafety (s6012) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseThe Location of Seismic Lines (s6013) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Objectives and Considerations
expand/collapseThe Observer's Report (s6014) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseIntroduction to Field Work: Exercises (s6016)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
expand/collapseIntroduction to Field Work: References and Additional Information (s6015) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Websites
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseSurveying and Mapping on Land (t75) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes tasks of seismic crew surveyor: laying out seismic lines and recording spatial coordinates of each source or receiver. Emphasizes precision, accuracy and appropriate tools. Examines electronic surveying and satellite-aided positioning, including Global Positioning System.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseObjectives and Requirements (s1224) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Surveying and Mapping on Land
  • Objectives and Requirements
expand/collapseThe Figure and Rotation of the Earth (s1225) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Figure and Rotation of the Earth
expand/collapseFrames of Reference (s1226) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Frames of Reference
  • Map Projections
  • Grid Systems
  • Databases
  • Noncoordinate Systems
expand/collapseSurveying Methods (s1227) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Surveying Instruments
  • Surveying Methods
  • Curvature Refraction and Parallax
expand/collapseLand Surveying in Practice (s1228) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Land Surveying in Practice
  • Azimuth Determinations
  • Line Layout
  • Field Notes
  • Survey Closure
  • Quality Control
  • Survey Monumentation
  • The Surveyor's report
expand/collapseSatellite Positioning Methods (s1229) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Satellite Positioning Methods
  • System Errors
  • Point-Positioning Surveys by 3-D Fixes
  • More Notes on Doppler Effect
  • The Global Positioning System
  • Carrier Vs. Code
  • Differential Positioning
  • Setting Control
  • Specifications of a Land GPS Receiver
expand/collapseSurveying and Mapping on Land: Exercises (s5712)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
expand/collapseSurveying and Mapping on Land: References and Additional Information (s1230) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapsePositioning and Mapping at Sea (t76) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Illustrates requirements and methods of navigation and positioning in marine seismic operations. Gives the land surveyor's nautical counterpart the necessary background to make required measurements, computations and compensations. Illustrates steering ship on a planned line, relating line to previous surveys, and ensuring that a drilling rig can return to optimal location.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Positioning and Mapping at Sea (s1231) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Introduction
expand/collapseTowed Streamer Acquisition (s1232) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Marine Seismic Operations
  • Definition of Coordinate Reference Frame
  • Source, Receiver and Common Depth Point Coordinates
  • Survey Design, 3D Binning Grids and Sail-Line Definitions
  • Acquisition, Logging, Processing and QC of navigation data
expand/collapseSatellite Positioning Systems (s1233) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Development of Satellite Positioning Systems
  • GPS and Differential GPS
  • Tail-buoy tracking and Secondary Vessel Positioning
  • GPS Vessel Orientation
  • GPS in Summary
expand/collapseSecondary Positioning Systems (s1234) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Secondary Positioning Systems
  • Vessel Gyro
  • Acoustic Networks and Ranges
  • Laser Gun-Float and Buoy Positioning
  • Cable Compasses
  • Gun and Cable Depth Sensors
  • Offsets, Lay-backs and Along-Cable measurements
  • Echo Sounders
expand/collapsePositioning Systems Calibration (s1235) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Static Calibration
  • Dynamic Calibration
  • Magnetic Declination and Compass Bias
  • Measuring Water Depths
expand/collapseDefinitions Controls and Checks (s1236) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Contracts and Technical specifications
  • Survey design and Bin Grid Definition
  • Health Safety and Environmental and Operational Considerations
  • Sail-Lines, Coverage, Feather, Bin-Fill and Undershoots
expand/collapseNavigation Data (s1237) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Logging Raw Navigation Data
  • P2 Raw Data
  • Contractors' Navigation Data Processing
expand/collapseNavigation QC and Reporting (s1238) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Navigation Quality Control
  • Statistical Analysis of Error
  • Communication and Reporting
  • Maps, Charts, Post-Plots, Bathymetry and GIS
expand/collapseAdditional Exploration Positioning Requirements (s1239) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview of 2D, OBC, Transition Zone, and 4D Acquisition
  • Exploration Site Investigation and Rig Positioning
expand/collapseNew Developments (s1240) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • RTK, Full-Stream Acoustics, and Wide-swath Shooting
expand/collapseSupplemental Information (s5796) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Brief History of Positioning Technology
  • Geodesy Datums, Spheroids and Projections
  • Water Depth, Tides, Chart Datum, and Bathymetric Charts
  • Implications to Health, Safety and Environment
  • Technical Audit and Survey Audit Considerations
  • Seismic Processing - Navigation Requirements
  • Sample Navigational Technical Specification
  • Survey Design, Bin-Grid and Sail-Lines
  • Radio Positioning Systems
expand/collapsePositioning and Mapping at Sea: Exercises (s5797)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
expand/collapsePositioning and Mapping at Sea: References and Additional Information (s5798) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Acknowledgments
expand/collapseMultiple Coverage (t77) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Focuses on multiple coverage method of obtaining field data, which is an efficient means of improving signal-to-noise ratio, and discusses use on land and at sea. Describes combination with common-midpoint stacking to further improve the ratio. Illustrates survey planning to maximize coverage, minimize noise and work around physical obstacles.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseBackground (s6198) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Development of Multiple Coverage
expand/collapseThe Benefits and Limitations of Multiple Coverage (s6201) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Attenuation of Noise
  • The Redundancy of the Method of Multiple Coverage
  • Velocity Information
  • Spatial Aliasing
  • The Tolerances of Multiple Coverage and Common-midpoint Stacking
expand/collapseThe Surface Diagram (s6207) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Source-Receiver Plane
  • The Midpoint Diagram
  • Shots Between Groups
  • The Calculation and Annotation of Fold
  • Surface Diagrams in 3D Acquisition
expand/collapseMultiple Coverage at Sea (s6214) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Achieving Full Coverage
  • Waterbreak Analysis
  • Location of the Source
  • Feathering
  • The Two-ship Operation
  • 3D Coverage
expand/collapseMultiple Coverage On Land (s6222) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Rollalong Switch
  • Spread Geometry
  • Irregularities in the Line Progression
  • The Crooked Line
  • 3D Acquisition Geometries
  • Other Operational Considerations
expand/collapseCommon-midpoint Stacking (s6230) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Common-midpoint Stacking
expand/collapseMigration and Multiple Coverage (s6232) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Migration and Multiple Coverage
expand/collapseVertical Seismic Profiling (s6234) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Vertical Seismic Profiling
expand/collapseSummary and Conclusions (s6236) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Summary and Conclusions
expand/collapseMultiple Coverage: Exercises (s6241)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
  • Exercise 11
  • Exercise 12
expand/collapseMultiple Coverage: References and Additional Information (s6238) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Further Reading
expand/collapseArray Design (t78) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Illustrates noise reduction in the field by using arrays to enhance signal-to-noise ratio. Harmonizes array design as a field problem with array design as a processing problem. Introduces an easy and effective approach to array design.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseArray Design (s6106) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Array Design
expand/collapseFactors Affecting Group Dimensions (s6108) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Practicality
  • Lateral Resolution
  • Averaging of Plants
  • Ambient Noise
  • The First Breaks
  • The Air Wave
  • Rough Terrain
  • Normal Moveout
  • Formation Dip
  • Spatial Aliasing
  • Suppressing Source Generated Noise
  • Source Generated Noise
expand/collapseApproaches to Array Design (s6121) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Traditional Approach
  • Developments of the Traditional Approach
  • The Stack-Array Approach
  • Relative Advantages of Each Approach
expand/collapseTraditional Array Design (s6126) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Field Testing
  • Traditional Array Design
  • Array Geometries
  • Response of Linear Arrays
  • Frequency Response of A Linear Array
  • Response of the Tapered Array
  • Combinations of Source and Receiver Arrays
  • Optimum Combination of Two Linear Arrays
  • The Chebychev Array
  • Areal Arrays
expand/collapseField Tests Measuring Source Generated Noise (s6137) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Review of Elastic Waves
  • Wave Spread Testing
  • Array Comparison Tests
  • Box Wave Testing
  • Synthesizing Test Arrays From Production Data
  • A Final Note: the Balance
expand/collapseA Universal Approach to Acquisition (s6144) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Range of Velocities
  • Universal Parameters
  • Economic Justification
  • Symmetrical Sampling
expand/collapseArrays in 3D (s6150) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Arrays in 3D Overview
expand/collapseArrays at Sea (s6152) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Hydrophone Arrays
  • Source Arrays
  • Super Long Arrays
expand/collapseArray Design: Exercises (s36994)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
  • Exercise No. 7
  • Exercise No. 8
expand/collapseArray Design: References and Additional Information (s6156) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Further Reading
expand/collapseVibroseis (t79) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes vibroseis--its use in the field and its processing requirements--as an attractive alternative to explosives in restricted areas, now used in over half of all land operations. Discusses the mechanics of vibrator technology and the concept of pulse compression to shape the sweep to an "impulsive" form.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseVibroseis in Principle (s1253) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Vibroseis
  • The Vibroseis Concept
  • Compressing a Sweep into a Pulse
  • Vibroseis System
  • Correlation
  • The Vibroseis Wavelet
  • Cross Correlation
expand/collapseVibroseis in Practice (s1254) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Vibroseis in Action
  • The Vibrator
  • The Vibrator Electronics
  • The Effects of Distortion
  • Instrumental Considerations
  • Practical Considerations in the Fields
  • Special Techniques
  • Specialized Equipment
expand/collapseVibroseis: Exercises (s5740) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
  • Exercise No. 7
  • Exercise No. 8
  • Exercise No. 9
  • Exercise No. 10
  • Exercise No. 11
  • Exercise No. 12
  • Exercise No. 13
  • Exercise No. 14
  • Exercise No. 15
  • Discussion No. 1
  • Discussion No. 2
  • Discussion No. 3
expand/collapseVibroseis: References and Additional Information (s1255) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Some Useful Web Sites
  • Further Reading
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseChoosing the Field Variables (t80) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Analyzes the exploration problem, the proper design of field programs, and the importance of the frequency variable. Demonstrates how other variables depend on frequency and on each other. Illustrates how to optimize field work.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction and Basic Concepts (s1256) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Scope
  • Defining the Exploration Problem
  • Defining the Geophysical Problem
  • Vertical Resolution
  • Improving the Resolution
  • Deconvolution and Signal Noise Bandwidth
  • Lateral Resolution
expand/collapseJudgements From the Field Data (s1257) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Historical Data
  • Judgements from Field Data
  • Benefits From Processing
expand/collapseField Variables (s5939) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Reasoned Progression for Choosing Field Variables
expand/collapseExperimental Shooting (s1258) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Are Field Experiments Necessary?
  • Test Methods
expand/collapseCriteria for Choosing Field Variables (s1259) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sampling
  • Ranges
  • Receiver Arrays
  • The Source
  • Relation of Source Points to Geophone Stations
  • 3-D Geometries
expand/collapseThe Land Impulsive Source (s5940) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Land Source
  • Source Variables
  • Source Effort
expand/collapseThe Vibroseis Source (s5941) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Vibroseis Overview
  • The Linear Sweep
  • The Nonlinear Sweep
  • Whitening the Spectrum Through Nonlinear Sweeps
  • Signal-to-Noise Considerations
  • Nonlinear Sweep Conclusions
  • Vibroseis Techniques
  • Procedure for Designing a Vibroseis Survey
expand/collapseReceivers and Recording Systems (s5942) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Receiver Overview
  • Recording Systems
expand/collapseMarine and Transition Zone Surveys (s1260) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Differences Between Marine and Land Surveys
  • Sources
  • Streamers
  • Ship Speed and the Stack Array
  • Considerations for Transition-Zone Surveys
expand/collapseConclusions (s5943) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Economic Considerations
  • Factors Affecting the Seismic Program
  • Conclusion
expand/collapseChoosing the Field Variables: References and Additional Information (s1261) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseChoosing the Field Variables: Exercises (s5944)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
  • Exercise 11
  • Exercise 12
  • Exercise 13
  • Exercise 14
  • Exercise 15
  • Exercise 16
  • Exercise 17
  • Exercise 18
  • Exercise 19
expand/collapseQuality Control in the Field (t81) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Discusses quality control of land and marine operations. Presents the four major considerations of field quality control: positioning, operations, record quality and reporting. Discusses crew safety and environmental concerns.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Quality Control in the Field (s1262) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Field Quality Assurance in Geophysics
  • Basic Concerns of the Client
  • Specifications
expand/collapseLand Surveys (s1263) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Objectives
  • Instrument Tests
  • Operational Quality
  • Vibroseis
  • Vibroseis Limitations
  • Reporting
expand/collapseMarine Surveys (s1264) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Positioning
  • Sources
  • Instrument and Streamer Tests
  • Missing Shots and Other Problems
  • Reporting
expand/collapseSafety and Environmental Concerns (s1265) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • High Energy Sources
  • Blasting Concerns
  • Avoiding Environmental Damage
  • Driving
  • Helicopter Operations
expand/collapseCost Effectiveness (s1266) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Why Consider Cost Effectiveness
  • Survey Contracts
expand/collapseQuality Control in the Field: References and Additional Information (s5915) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseQuality Control in the Field: Exercises (s6078)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
  • Exercise 11
  • Exercise 12
  • Exercise 13
  • Exercise 14
  • Exercise 15
  • Exercise 16
  • Exercise 17
  • Exercise 18
  • Exercise 19
  • Exercise 20
  • Exercise 21
  • Exercise 22
  • Exercise 23
  • Exercise 24
  • Exercise 25
expand/collapseMulticomponent Seismic Applications (t6105) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Provides an understanding of the value of recording multicomponent seismic data. Describes the concepts of wave propagation, shear wave splitting and amplitude variation with offset. Provides the basic principles of processing and interpretation of multicomponent data.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Multicomponent Seismic Applications (s6287) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • P- and S-waves
expand/collapseExploration Value (s6289) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction: the Value of P- and S-wave Data
  • Predict Fractures
  • Improved Structural Image
  • Improved P-wave Seismic
  • Predicting Fluid Type
expand/collapseTheory (s6295) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Wave Propagation
  • Shear Wave Splitting
  • Velocity and Rock Properties
  • Conversion
  • Reflection and Refraction
  • Amplitude Variation With offset
expand/collapseShear Source Shear Receiver (s6302) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Source
  • The Receiver
  • Polarity Convention
  • Orientation
  • Bandwidth
expand/collapseCompression Source Compression Receiver (s6309) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseCompression Source Shear Receiver (s6311) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Compression Source – Shear Receiver
  • The Reflection Point
  • Polarity Issues
  • Land Converted Wave Acquisition
  • Marine Operations
expand/collapseProcessing (s6317) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Rotation
  • Binning
  • Statics
  • NMO
  • Effect of Lateral Velocity Variation
  • Prestack Depth Migration
  • P and Z Summation
expand/collapseInterpretation (s6326) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Depth Calibration
  • Vp/Vs Analysis
  • Amplitudes
  • Anisotropy
  • Layer Stripping
  • Improved Structural Images
  • Predicting Fluid Type
  • Predicting Lithology
  • Predicting Fractures and Permeability
expand/collapseReview of Best Practices (s6336) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Review of Best Practices
expand/collapseMulticomponent Seismic Applications: References and Additional Information (s6338) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
expand/collapseMulticomponent Seismic Applications: Exercises (s6340)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercises 1
  • Exercises 2
  • Exercises 3
  • Exercises 4
  • Exercises 5
  • Exercises 6
  • Exercises 7
  • Exercises 8
  • Exercises 9
  • Exercises 10
  • Exercises 11
  • Exercises 12

Seismic Processing

expand/collapseBasic Processing (t36504) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Outlines seismic processing objectives and describes how the sequential steps of pre-processing, stacking and velocity analysis, migration and post-processing are used to generate the best possible image of the subsurface from recorded field data. Discusses the effect of each step on the overall sequence, with emphasis on the two-fold goal of improving the signal-to-noise ratio and locating seismic reflections with respect to their true spatial positions.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseBasic Processing Overview (s36505) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Objective of Seismic Processing
  • Basic Seismic Processing Sequence
  • The Utility of CMP Data
  • Frequency Filtering
  • Array Simulation
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapsePre-Processing and Deconvolution (s36513) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Data Loading and Demultiplexing
  • Trace Editing
  • Gain Recovery and Trace Equalization
  • Datum Corrections
  • Deconvolution
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseStacking and Velocity Analysis (s36521) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • CMP Sorting
  • Velocity Analysis
  • Normal Moveout Correction
  • Multiple Attenuation Dereverberation
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseMigration and Post-Processes (s36529) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Seismic Migration
  • Post-Processes
  • Display
expand/collapseBasic Processing: References and Additional Information (s36533) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
expand/collapseInitial Processes (t36535) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes the SEG-D and SEG-Y formats for recording and storing seismic data, along with the Observer's Reports and Field Notes that contain essential information for seismic data processing, and the initial checks that are performed on field data. Examines the steps involved in pre-processing seismic data, including gain recovery, de-multiplexing, re-sampling, assigning geometry, datum corrections, amplitude adjustments, trace editing, common midpoint gather and common offset gather. Addresses the practical considerations involved in selecting variables, establishing the processing order and reprocessing existing seismic lines.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseField Data (s36536) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • SEG Seismic Field Recording Format (SEG-D)
  • SEG Seismic Trade Format (SEG-Y)
  • The Observer Report and Field Notes
  • Initial Checks
expand/collapsePre-Processing Flow (s36542) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Gain Recovery
  • De-Multiplexing
  • Re-Sampling
  • Assigning Geometry
  • Datum Corrections
  • Amplitude Adjustments
  • Trace Editing
  • Commom MidPoint Gather
  • Common Offset Gather
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapsePractical Considerations (s36558) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Choice of Variables and Processing Order
  • Reprocessing
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseInitial Processes: References and Additional Information (s36563) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseVelocities (t36565) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Reviews the physical factors that influence seismic velocity. Defines the various components of seismic velocity, and introduces the concepts of stacking velocity and normal moveout. Describes analysis procedures and the practical considerations involved, including techniques for interpreting and refining the velocity model. Discusses velocity analysis for anisotropic media. Provides overviews of tomographic velocity analysis and migration velocity analysis.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseInfluencing Factors (s36566) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Rock Composition
  • Fracturing
  • Depth and Age
  • Differential Pressure
  • Pore Fluid Properties and Temperature
  • Velocity Variations
  • Summary
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseSeismic Velocities Definition (s36575) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Normal Moveout
  • NMO for Dipping Layer
  • Stacking Velocities
  • Instantaneous Interval and Average Velocities
  • NMO Stretching
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseVelocity Analysis (s36584) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Constant Velocity Stack Panel
  • Coherence Measures and the Velocity Analysis Display
  • Horizon Velocity Analysis
expand/collapsePractical Considerations for Velocity Analysis (s36591) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Processing Considerations
  • Selection of Velocity Analysis Variables
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseInterpreting and Refining the Velocity Model (s36596) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Picking and Verifying the Velocities
  • Residual NMO Analysis
  • Harmonizing Stacking and Well Survey Velocities
  • DMO
expand/collapseAdditional Technologies (s36601) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Velocity Analysis for Anisotropic Media
  • Tomographic Velocity Analysis
  • Migration Velocity Analysis
expand/collapseVelocities: References and Additional Information (s36605) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseStatic Corrections (t36726) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Examines how static corrections are applied to seismic data to compensate for near-surface or water-bottom effects. Describes long-wavelength static problems and computation methods, including considerations in choosing a seismic datum and accounting for the geology of the area. Examines deterministic methods for deriving the near-surface velocity model. Discusses short-wavelength static corrections, including cross-correlation methods, surface-consistent methods, genetic algorithms, cross-dip corrections and 3-D statics. Describes layer replacement techniques of ray trace modeling and wave equation datuming.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseBasic Concepts (s36727) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Recording Considerations
  • Static Effects on the Stack
  • Statics in the Overall Processing Flow
  • Interpretive Considerations in Statics
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseLong Wavelength Statics (s36733) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Basic Statics Computations
  • Choosing a Seismic Datum
  • Geological Consideration
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseDeterministic Techniques for Deriving the Near Surface Velocity Models (s36738) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Uphole Surveys
  • Seismic Refraction Theory and Application
  • Refraction Interpretation Methods
  • Tomography Statics
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseShort Wavelength Static (Residual Static) (s36744) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Cross Correlation Methods
  • Surface Consistent Methods
  • Genetic Algorithms
  • Cross-Dip Corrections and 3-D Statics
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseLayer Replacement Techniques (s36750) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Effects of an Irregular Sea Floor
  • Layer Replacement by Ray - Trace Modeling
  • Wave Equation Datuming
expand/collapseStatic Corrections: References and Additional Information (s36754) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Weathered Layer Thickness Calculations
  • Linear Inverse Theory
  • Slope/Intercept Method
  • GLI Method: A Two-Layer Example
expand/collapseDeconvolution (t36653) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the concept of the convolutional model and describes the use of deconvolution in removing coherent noise and minimizing the effect of the wavelet on the final stack. Defines deconvolution parameters. Examines single-trace, deterministic and multi-trace deconvolution methods, along with alternative methods such as maximum likelihood, minimum entropy and L1-norm deconvolution. Addresses practical considerations in applying deconvolution methods and provides a suggested processing scheme.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseConceptual Introduction to Seismic Deconvolution (s37583) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Conceptual Introduction to Seismic Deconvolution
  • Deconvolution When One Signal Is Known
  • Deconvolution When Both Signals Are Unknown
  • Non-Minimum Phase Sources
  • Multi Channel and Surface Consistent Deconvolution
  • Predictive Deconvolution
  • Parameter Selection
expand/collapseBasic Concepts (s36654) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Convolutional Model
  • The Seismic Source
  • The Complete Seismic Model
  • Deconvolution in Theory
  • Deconvolution Parameters
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseSingle-Trace Statistical Deconvolution (s36661) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Spiking Deconvolution
  • Zero-Phase Deconvolution
  • Predictive Deconvolution
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDeterministic Methods (s36665) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Dephasing Versus the Full Wavelet Inverse
  • Deconvolution with a Known Wavelet
  • Deconvolution with Known Reflectivity
expand/collapseMulti-Trace Deconvolution (s36669) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Shot Deconvolution
  • Surface-Consistent Deconvolution
  • Poststack Multi-Trace Deconvolution
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseAlternative Methods of Deconvolution (s36674) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Maximum Likelihood Deconvolution
  • Minimum Entropy Deconvolution
  • L1-Norm Deconvolution
  • Q Deconvolution
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapsePractical Considerations in Deconvolution (s36679) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Comparison Methods
  • Seismic Source
  • Deconvolution - A Suggested Processing Scheme
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDeconvolution: References and Additional Information (s36769) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Convolution and Correlation
  • The Z-Transform and Fourier Transform
  • Minimum and Non-Minimum Phase
  • Dereverberation Method
  • Wiener Shaping Filter
expand/collapseStacking, Filtering and Display (t36607) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes the process of common midpoint stacking and introduces alternate forms of stacking. Examines the use of two-dimensional filters in separating different arrivals on the basis of their characteristic velocities. Discusses pre-stack and post-stack filtering processes, and the use of band pass filters, time variant filters and filter panels. Reviews different methods for displaying final record sections based on the needs of the seismic interpreter.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseCommon Midpoint Stacking (s36682) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Definitions
  • Prestack Processes
  • The Mean Amplitude Stack
  • Benefits and Limitations
  • Irregular Geometry
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseAlternative Forms (s36688) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Weighting by Mute
  • Weighting by Offset
  • Median Stack
  • Diversity Stack
  • Trimmed Mean Stacking
  • Coherence Stack (or Semblance)
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseVelocity Filters (s36694) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Two Dimensional Filter
  • Pre-Stack Filtering
  • Post-Stack Filtering
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseFinal Filtering (s36699) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Band Pass Filters
  • Time Variant Filters
  • Filter Panels
expand/collapseDisplay (s36703) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Final Amplitude Manipulation
  • Display Scales
  • Display Modes
  • Polarity Conventions
  • Plot Annotation
expand/collapseStacking, Filtering and Display: References and Additional Information (s36709) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseMultiple Attenuation (t37611) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Conventional seismic processing assumes that primaries are our wanted signal and that multiples are noise. This present topic discusses the characteristics of these multiples and how they lead to the selection of the most appropriate attenuation method. We define primaries as signals that have only one downward path, one reflection and one upward path. However, in practice, we frequently use sources and receivers below the surface and this leads to ghost reflections. When these ghost reflections follow the primary closely, within perhaps 20 ms, these are treated as being part of the source pulse or the receiver response and not considered as multiples though technically they are multiples.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseMultiples and their Characteristics (s37612) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Peg-Leg Multiples
  • Interbed Multiples
  • Long and Short Period Reverberations
  • Dip
expand/collapseMultiple Attenuation Method (s37618) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Attenuation Techniques
  • Multiple Attenuation by Stacking
  • Multiple Attenuation using F- K and Radon Transforms
  • Multiple Attenuation by Prediction
  • Multiple Attenuation by Wave Field Extrapolation
  • Surface Related Multiple Elimination
  • Pressure and Velocity Summation
  • References
expand/collapseSeismic Migration (t36616) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Reviews the seismic reflection process. Examines the fundamentals of seismic migration and how geological features affect seismic data. Discusses practical considerations in applying migration methods. Addresses the issue of seismic migration in anisotropic media.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseOverview of Seismic Migration (s36617) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Migration Types
  • Methods
  • Modes
  • Effect of the Seismic Migration on the Geological Features
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
  • Exercise No.4
  • Exercise No.5
expand/collapseSeismic Migration Methods (s36628) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Kirchhoff Migration
  • Finite Difference Migration
  • Fourier Transform Migration
  • Practical Considerations
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDepth Migration (s36635) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Kirchhof Depth Migration
  • Finite Difference Depth Migration
  • Fourier Transform Depth Migration
  • Practical Considerations
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapse2D Versus 3D Migration (s36642) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Two-Pass and One-Pass Techniques
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseSeismic Migration in Anisotropic Media (s36646) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Migration in VTI Media
  • Other Anisotropic Media
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseSeismic Migration: References and Additional Information (s36651) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseSynthetic Seismogram Modeling (t37216) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This course introduces the techniques used in forward modeling the acoustic properties of the earth to predict the seismic response of the earth. The synthetic seismogram, commonly called "the synthetic," is the resulting one-dimensional model used to identify the relationship between reflection events on a seismic section with marker horizons identified in well logs or to determine the wavelet embedded in the seismic data. The course’s overall intent is to develop your capability to competently and confidently employ synthetics in exploration and production. Upon completion of this course, you will better understand how to prepare a synthetic and what assumptions and factors affect the validity of the model.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseSynthetic Seismogram (s574) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Principles
  • Log Sampling, General Considerations
  • Sampling Methods
  • Backus Averaging
  • Comparison Section
  • Long-Path Multiples
  • Short-Path Multiples
  • Reflection Pulse
  • Practical Problems and Considerations
  • Matching the Trace to the Seismic Section
  • Applications
  • References
  • Recommended Reading
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3

Seismic Interpretation

expand/collapseBasic Seismic Interpretation (t38736) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

5 hours

(average of 60 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces seismic data interpretation. Lists the four basic steps in structural seismic interpretation. Identifies where to pick the horizon on the seismic waveform and why. Explains why migration changes the reflection times on dip lines, but does not change them on strike lines. Recognizes the location of favorable traps for hydrocarbon accumulations. Explains the timing and the depositional mechanics of faulting and how this impacts oil and gas migration. States the different types of seismic effects that can be misleading during interpretation. Explains the concept of sequences; intervals within which the sediments are genetically related. Describes how the amplitude, polarity, and shape of the seismic signal are important to understanding the geological lateral variations of the subsurface. Differentiates between bright spots, flat spots and dim spots on seismic sections, and explains what causes these direct hydrocarbon indicators. Outlines how crosswell seismology provides high density, depth-calibrated seismic data between two wellbores. Describes how and where seismic attributes are applied.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Seismic Interpretation (s38737) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Process of Seismic Interpretation
  • Where to Pick
  • Where to Time
  • Migrated and Unmigrated Sections and Line Ties
expand/collapseStructural Interpretation (s38738) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Faults and Sedimentary Accumulations
  • Timing of Structural Movements
expand/collapseSeismic Stratigraphy (s38739) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Sedimentary Layers
  • Unconformities
  • Erosional Channels
  • Mound Deposits and Reefs
  • Reef Interpretation
  • Absence of Reflections
expand/collapseSeismic Interpretation Methods (s38740) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Seismic Modeling Introduction
  • Bright, Flat and Dim Spots
  • Crosswell Seismic
expand/collapseInterpretation with Seismic Attributes (s38741) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • 2D and 3D AVO Attributes
  • The Coherence Attribute
  • Instantaneous Attributes
  • Attribute Applications
expand/collapseFault Interpretation  (t38868) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

9 hours 36 minutes

(average of 72 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Details the questions we must answer in fault interpretations, such as the source, seal, hydrocarbon generation and migration, and fault reactivation. Addresses how faults can act as both conduits and seals and how these work together to create reservoirs. Identifies the four special states of stress, the three deformations stages in the stress-strain diagram, and the structural hydrocarbon trap types that result from or are associated with some form of faulting. Explains why faults are generally classified on the basis of their relative sense of displacement. Defines the basic rules for fault interpretation, and the structural styles and characteristic geographic locations of basement-involved faulting. Explains the general aspects of foreland thrust belts that are of direct importance to hydrocarbon exploration. Lists the various workstation views that can aid in fault interpretation. Identifies how 3D detail helps with structural fault contours, and the sealing and leaking properties of major faults. Describes how time slice movies help to recognize and locate smaller faults and improve precision of defining their fault boundaries.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseFaults in Petroleum Provinces (s38869) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Issues in Interpretation
expand/collapseStress and Strain (s38870) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Stress
  • Strain
  • Rock Strength, Brittleness and Ductility
  • Principal Stress Directions and Faulting
expand/collapseFault Nomenclature (s38871) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Terminology
  • Normal Faults
  • Thrust Faults
  • Strike-Slip Faults
expand/collapseSeismic Expression of Faults (s38872) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Faults and Diffractions
  • Perfect and Imperfect Migration
  • Fault Plane Reflection Coefficient
  • Steeply Dipping Fault Planes
  • Refracted Fault Plane Reflections
  • Reactivation and Wrenching
expand/collapseFault Data Interpretation (s38873) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Interpretation Rules
  • Fault Plane Maps
  • Basic Principles of Structure Maps
  • The Role of Reflection Time
expand/collapseDivergent Basins: Structural Styles (s38874) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Structural Styles
  • Overview of Divergent Basins
  • Basement-Involved Faulting
  • Growth Faults
  • Salt Movement Faults
  • Shale Movement Faults
  • Gravity-Induced Faulting
expand/collapseConvergent Basins: Structural Styles (s38875) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Basement-Involved Faulting
  • Faulting Without Basement-Involvement
  • Strike-Slip Basins
  • Cratonic Basins
expand/collapseFaults: 3D and Workstation Interpretation (s38876) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Time Slices
  • Fault Slices
  • Case Studies
expand/collapseSeismic Contouring (t39020) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

7 hours 30 minutes

(average of 75 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic lists sources of evidence that can be used to supplement the best contouring interpretation. Explains how different interpretations can be obtained from the same data, and how to decide which interpretations are more accurate. Details the key features needed for a pick to represent a geologically meaningful surface. Describes the SEG 1975 seismic polarity convention. Defines several options for picking migrated and unmigrated sections. Lists the recommended practices for choosing map contour intervals. Details the ethics of contouring. Explains the differences between the gridding and triangular approach for machine contouring. Provides the major uses of an interval map and explains how these are made. Describes the contouring differences between two-dimensional high-pass and low-pass filtering.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseContouring Fundamentals (s39021) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Shapes and Contours
  • Faulted Structures
  • Relevance of Line Spacing
  • Map Example: Kapuni Field, New Zealand
expand/collapseContouring by Hand: Picking (s39022) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Basic Concepts of Picking
  • General Rules of Picking
  • Location Map
expand/collapseContouring by Hand: Solving Misties (s39023) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Misties
  • Misties in Unmigrated Sections
  • Misties in Migrated Sections
  • Misties Summary
  • Digitizing and Posting
  • Ray Migration and Demigration as a Tool in Handling Misties
expand/collapseContouring by Hand: Practical Procedures (s39024) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Contouring Procedures
  • Some Finer Points of Contouring
  • Rules of Contouring
  • Ethics of Contouring
expand/collapseContouring by Machine (s39025) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Contouring Approaches
  • Gridding Approach
  • Triangular Approach
  • Interactive Workstations
expand/collapseContour Maps: Operations (s39026) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Interval Maps
  • Reservoir Area and Volume Calculations
  • Two-Dimensional Filtering: Trends and Residuals
  • Map Migration
expand/collapseVelocity Interpretation and Depth Conversion (t39106) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

7 hours

(average of 60 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic outlines the process of integration when working with velocity data. It discusses the types of velocities used in seismic processing, defines their application, identifies the different velocity curves versus time, and describes how to use Dix's equation to calculate interval velocities. NMO correction and the application to seismic signals is explained. The relationship between velocity and the quantity of sand or shale in stratigraphic layers is addressed as well as the effects of lithology on velocity. The differences between a VSP and a checkshot survey, and a number of ways we use sonic logs and associated data in exploration processes are discussed. It provides details on the three basic factors that we must consider when using a sonic log, lists several tests to ensure the quality of the velocity data, and explains the various sources of statistical error that limit the use of velocities. The topic outlines how seismically derived velocities can be used with sparse well control, identifies two methods that can be used when exploration objectives require a reliable depth conversion algorithm, and explains how interval stacking velocity maps are used to extend values obtained from area wells.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseSeismic Velocities  (s39107) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Average Velocity
  • Interval Velocity
  • Root-Mean-Square (RMS) Velocity
  • Normal–Moveout (NMO) Velocity
expand/collapseNormalized Interval Velocity (s39108) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Lithology, Age, Pore Pressure and Depth
  • Sand-Shale Ratio
  • Depth-Normalized Velocity Method
expand/collapseWell Velocities (s39109) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sonic Logs
  • Checkshot Surveys
  • Vertical Seismic Profiles
expand/collapseSeismic Velocity Databases (s39110) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Data Preparation
  • Quality Control Techniques
  • Gridding and Smoothing
  • Statistical, Systematic and Geological Errors
expand/collapseTime-Depth Conversion Methods (s39111) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Effects of a Varying Water Layer
  • Constant Function Method
  • Time-Line Method
  • Average Velocity Method
  • Interval Velocity Method
expand/collapseNormalized Interval Velocity Techniques (s39112) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Compaction Curves
  • Iterative Depth Algorithm (IDA)
  • Lithology Determination
  • Interpretation Study Example
expand/collapseAdditional Examples for Time-Depth Conversion (s39113) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Nomenclature and Symbols
  • Layer Cake Depth Conversion
  • Monitoring Depth Conversions Using a Normalized Velocity-Lithology Correlation
expand/collapseHydrocarbon Indicators (t94) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Discusses the various hydrocarbon indicators, explaining the physical causes of the significant feature recognized on seismic. Presents approaches in acquisition, processing or interpretation which may upgrade an anomaly through validation as a hydrocarbon indicator. Examines in detail the preservation of seismic attributes, amplitude related and other direct indicators, inversion techniques and the use of 3D data and workstations.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseSeismic Methods and Hydrocarbon Detection (s1339) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Historical Perspective
expand/collapseReflections and Seismic Parameters (s1340) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Huygens' Principle
  • Fresnel Zone
  • Amplitude
  • Phase Character
  • Frequency
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseSeismic Attributes and Their Preservation (s1341) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Acquisition of Seismic Data
  • Waveform Processing
  • Amplitude Processing
  • Static Corrections
  • Stacking Velocities and Moveout Correction
  • Dip Moveout Velocities (DMO)
  • Migration and Depth Migration
  • Optimized Processing Sequence for Stratigraphic Objectives
  • Use of Color Displays
  • Examples of Color Displays
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseAmplitude HCIs (s1342) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Geologic Processes
  • Lithology Effects
  • Sand/ Shale Reflectivity Zones
  • Dim Spot: Zones II and III
  • Carbonates and Other Lithologies
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseAmplitude Versus offset (AVO) (s1343) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Energy Partitioning
  • AVO Methods
  • AVO Pros and Cons
  • AVO Modeling
  • AVO Case Studies
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseSeismic Modeling (s1344) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Modeling Approaches
  • Structural Applications
  • Stratigraphic Applications
  • Inverse Models
  • Inverse Modeling Case Studies
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapse3-D Seismic Data, Workstations and Hydrocarbon Indicators (s1345) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Benefits and Display Capabilities
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseShear Waves and Other Hydrocarbon Indicators (s1346) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Shear Waves
  • Multi-Component Surveys
  • Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSPs) and Borehole Tomography
  • 4-D: Time Variant
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseHydrocarbon Indicator Validation (s1347) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Guidelines
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseHydrocarbon Indicators: References and Additional Information (s4661) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseSeismic Stratigraphic Modeling (t95) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Presents methods for extracting stratigraphic information from seismic data. Discusses acquisition concerns when the goal is stratigraphic analysis. Examines forward and inverse modeling, and AVO analysis. Presents case studies and the methods for determining the success or failure of the methods applied.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseStratigraphic Prospects (s1348) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exploration Trends
  • Stratigraphic Traps
  • Seismic Data and Stratigraphic Information
expand/collapseStratigraphic Seismology (s1349) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Resolution
  • Stratigraphic Acquisition
  • Stratigraphic Processing
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseVelocity and the Seismic Response (s1350) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Velocity and Rock Properties
  • Reflection and Acoustic Impedance
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseForward Modeling (s1351) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Integration of Seismic and Subsurface Data
  • Synthetic Seismogram Modeling
  • Multi-Dimensional Modeling
  • Building a Geologic Model
  • Two-Dimensional Modeling: Pinacle Reef
  • Two-Dimensional Modeling: Sand/ Shale Sequence
  • Two-Dimensional Modeling: Gas-Bearing Sand
  • Stratigraphic Models: Case Studies
  • Three and Four-Dimensional Modeling
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
expand/collapseInverse Modeling (s1352) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Inversion Processing
  • Synthetic Sonic Display
  • Case Study
expand/collapseAmplitude vs. offset Analysis (s1353) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Energy Partitioning
  • AVO Models
  • Limitations of the AVO Method
  • Gas and Sand Case Study
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseSeismic Stratigraphic Modeling: References and Additional Information (s1354) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading

3D Seismic and Time-Lapse Methods

expand/collapse3D and 4D Seismic (t23455) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces 3D seismic techniques used in exploration and reservoir delineation. Describes operations involved in 3D surveys, including field work, processing and interpretation.

Presents a comprehensive look at 3D techniques, including acquisition, processing and interpretation. Discusses acquisition methods and quality control for land and marine surveys. Addresses velocity analyses, trace binning, NMO and migration. Examines time slices, chair displays and other 3D displays. Illustrates role and capabilities of the workstation in 3D interpretation. 4D Seismic, also known as time lapse monitoring is intended to highlight the differences between successive vintages of 3D seismic surveys that are caused by changes in reservoir properties due to production.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapse3D Seismic Techniques: An Overview (s23456) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Introduction
  • 3D Methods Described
expand/collapse3D Seismic Data Acquisition (s23459) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • History and Early Development
  • Survey Design Criteria - Field Parameters
  • Pre-Acquisition Modelling
  • Wide Azimuth Benefits
  • Land Acquisition
  • Swath Shooting
  • Marine Applications
  • Transition Zone Acquisition
  • Navigation and Surveying
expand/collapse3D Seismic Data Processing (s23467) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Seismic Data Pre-processing
  • Velocity Analyses
  • Trace Binning
  • NMO Statics and Stacking
  • Statics Scaling and Stacking
  • Migration
  • In-Field 3D Processing
expand/collapse3D Interpretation Basics (s23475) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Interpretation Introduction
  • 3D Displays
  • Time Slices
  • Composites
  • Colors in 3D Displays
  • Interpretation Workstations
  • Special Interpretation Capabilities
  • Movies
  • Structural Flattening
  • Interpreting and Picking Seismic Data
  • Interpreting Data on the Workstation
  • Interpreting Lines
  • Interpreting Time Slices
  • Interpreting Composite Displays
  • Using Contiguous Lines Time Slices and Movies
  • Tying Interpretations
  • Depth Conversion
expand/collapse3D Interpretation in Practice (s23493) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Structural Overview and Skeleton Interpretations
  • Infill Picking
  • Specialized Techniques
  • Maps and Imagery in Seismic Planning
  • 3D Interpretation - Summary
expand/collapseOverview of 3D Volume Visualization (s23499) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Fundamental Elements
  • Paring the Data
  • Case Studies
  • Visualization Software
expand/collapse4D Seismic Applications (s23505) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Time-Lapse Seismic in Reservoir Monitoring
  • Process Summary
  • Factors Controlling Project Feasibility
  • Designing the 4D Program
  • Case Study
  • Water Injection Case Study
expand/collapse3D and 4D Seismic: Exercises (s23515)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
  • Exercise 11
  • Exercise 12
  • Exercise 13
  • Exercise 14
  • Exercise 15
  • Exercise 16
  • Exercise 17
expand/collapse3D and 4D Seismic: References and Additional Information (s23513) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading

Borehole Geophysics and Non-Seismic Methods

expand/collapseGravity and Magnetics  (t38500) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

10 hours 16 minutes

(average of 56 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Provides a basic introduction to gravity and magnetic theory and data, with the key Earth properties that contribute to the effects, modeling and interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies. Examines the physical processes responsible for observed gravimetric and magnetic effects, relating them to specific geophysical, geological or geochemical features. Explains various instrument types, proper field techniques and conditions, and data reduction, correction, and processing methods. Using extensive case studies, discusses modeling, time-lapse, time-varying, depth estimation techniques, interpretation and extrapolation of both surface and borehole gravity surveys, and magnetic surveys.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseIntroduction to Gravity and Magnetic Data (s38501) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • The Basic Concepts of Gravity
  • Vectors and the Principle of Superposition
  • Gravity Measurements and Variations in Earth’s Gravity Field
expand/collapseDensity of the Earth (s38502) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Density Computation
  • Density Contrasts
  • Sources of Density Data
expand/collapseModeling the Gravity Effects of Geologic Bodies (s38503) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction and the Infinite Slab Model
  • Thin 2D Prism Model
  • Spherical Approximation Model
  • Semi-Infinite Horizontal Sheet Model
  • Computer Models
expand/collapseReduction and Processing of Gravity Data (s38504) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Latitude Corrections
  • Free-Air Correction
  • Bouguer Correction
  • Corrections for Marine and Airborne Gravity
  • Satellite Gravity
expand/collapseSurface Gravity Interpretation (s38505) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Geologic Applications and Approach
  • Determining the Response
  • Analyzing Data Suitability
  • Determining Residual Gravity
  • Depth Estimation
  • Quantitative Gravity Modeling
expand/collapseBorehole Gravity (s38506) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Borehole Gravity Applications
  • Density from Borehole Gravity
  • Advantages and Features of Borehole Gravity
  • BHGM Density Logging
  • Remote Sensing of Structures
expand/collapseGravity Gradiometry and Time-Lapse Gravity Measurements (s38507) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Gravity Gradiometry Fundamental Concepts
  • Gravity Gradiometry Case History
  • Using Time-Lapse Gravimetry For Reservoir Monitoring
expand/collapseIntroduction to Magnetic Data (s38508) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Basic Concepts of Magnetism
  • Earth's Magnetic Field
  • Magnetic Force Fields
  • Modeling Magnetic Force Fields
  • Introduction to Rock Magnetism
  • Natural Remanent Magnetism
expand/collapseMagnetic Anomalies: Their Geological Significance and Signatures (s38509) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Magnetic Anomalies
  • Basement and Sedimentary Features
  • Intra-Basement Magnetization Contacts
  • Supra-Basement Structural Anomalies
  • Intra-Sedimentary Magnetic Effects
  • Diagenetic Anomalies
  • Ocean Floor Anomalies
  • Basic Magnetic Anomaly Signatures
expand/collapseMagnetic Instruments and Field Surveys (s38510) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Magnetic Survey Design
  • Magnetic Survey Temporal Corrections
  • Magnetometers
  • Aeromagnetic Survey Systems
  • Marine Magnetic Surveys
expand/collapseMagnetic Data Processing and Interpretation (s38511) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Corrections for Expected Variations
  • Data Examination
  • Magnetic Interpretation General Procedure
  • Determining the Response
  • Data Processing
  • Examples of Filtered Maps
  • Depth Estimation
  • Inversion
expand/collapseControlled Source Electromagnetic Methods (t37435) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This course aims to describe the present state of the art of the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method as applied to the search for hydrocarbons, with particular emphasis on the the multi-channel electromagnetic (MTEM) method. This course compares electromagnetic and seismic propagation at certain points, emphasing both the similarities and the differences. EM exploration for hydrocarbons is today roughly where seismic exploration was in the late 1960’s.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseOverview (s37436) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapseIntroduction to EM and its role in the Petroleum Industry (s37438) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Ohm’s Law and Resistivity
  • Role of Fluids
  • Resistivity, Hydrocarbon Saturation, and Archie’s Law
  • Passive and Active EM
  • Direct Current (DC) Resistivity Measurements
  • Seismic and EM Propagation: The Wave Equation and the Diffusion Equation
expand/collapseFourier Theory (s37445) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Fourier Transform
  • Two-dimensional Fourier Transform
  • Resolution and Bandwidth
  • Similarity Theorem
  • The Impulse Function (δ)
  • Impulse Response
  • Linear Filters and Convolution
  • Convolution Theorem
  • Derivative Theorem
  • Wavefield Transformation
expand/collapseElectromagnetic Waves (s37456) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Maxwell’s Equations
  • Constitutive Relations
  • Electromagnetic Wave Equations
  • Transformation of the Wave Equations to the Frequency Domain
  • Plane Wave Solutions of the Electromagnetic Wave Equations, Skin Depth, Wavelength
  • Electromagnetic Propagation in Air and Free Space
  • Electromagnetic Propagation in Conducting Media: Diffusion Equation
  • Point Electric Dipole Source in an Unbounded Medium
  • Boundary Conditions
  • Point Electric Dipole Source onThe Surface of a half-space
expand/collapsePassive Electromagnetics  (s37467) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Magnetotellurics (MT) Method
  • The MT Receiver
expand/collapseOverview of Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) Methods  (s37470) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Conventional Marine CSEM
  • The Evolution of Marine CSEM
  • Conventional Land CSEM: LOTEM
  • Response to an Impulsive Source of Current on Land – The Air Wave
  • Response to an Impulsive Source of Current in Sea Water
  • The MTEM Method
  • Sources of Electromagnetic Noise
  • Interpretation of CSEM Data
expand/collapseSource Control in Controlled Source Electromagnetics (CSEM) (s37479) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Convolutional Model in CSEM
  • Source Control and the Source Time Function
  • Pseudo-random Binary Sequence (PRBS)
  • Response to a Transient Input Signal
  • Square-wave Function
  • Comparison of PRBS and Square Wave Theory
  • Comparison of Square Wave and PRBS Marine CSEM Data
  • Signature Deconvolution Theory
  • Signature Deconvolution Applied to a Whole Line of Marine PRBS Data
  • Frequency Response Functions of PRBS and Square-wave Data
  • Deconvolution Gain
expand/collapseConventional Marine CSEM Data Acquisition and Processing (s37491) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Positioning
  • Clock Drift
  • Acquisition Geometries
  • Data Pre-processing
  • Source Normalization
  • Determination of Rotation Angle
  • Determination of Amplitude and Phase
  • ExxonMobil Examples
expand/collapseLand MTEM Data Acquisition and Processing (s37501) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Impulse Response and Time to the Peak
  • The Impulse Response in Dimensionless Time
  • Frequency Domain Response
  • Variation of Response Time with Offset
  • Bandwidth of Recording
  • Frequency Bandwidth Comparison of MTEM with Other Methods
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio of MTEM Data
  • Maximizing the Signal
  • Minimizing Noise: Attenuation of Cultural Noise by Polarity Reversals
  • Minimizing Noise: Attenuation of Cultural Noise by Filtering
  • Minimizing Noise: Attenuation of Cultural Noise by Additional Cross-track Measurements
  • Estimating Resistivity from Travel-time Data
expand/collapseMarine MTEM Data Acquisition and Processing (s37514) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Data Acquisition Using Ocean-bottom Cable (OBC)
  • Harding Field Example
  • Data Acquisition
  • Positioning Repeatability Errors
  • Optimization of Source Signal Parameters
  • Frequency Domain Deconvolution
  • Offset Correction
  • Spatially-Correlated Noise Removal
  • Repeatability
  • MTEM Marine Data
expand/collapseEffect of the water layer on marine CSEM data (s37525) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Electrical Conductivity of Sea Water
  • Double Halfspace Response
  • Air-Water-Earth Half-space System: Multiples (Reverberations)
  • Airwave Attenuation for Transient EM
  • The Airwave and Conventional CSEM
expand/collapseModeling and Inversion to Determine Resistivity (s37531) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Problem
  • Inversion as Iterative Forward Modeling
  • Forward Modeling
  • 3D EM Time-lapse Model Building – Harding Example
  • 3D Forward Modeling and 1D Inversion - Harding Example
  • 3D Inversion of 3D Data Including Anisotropy
  • Quantification of Misfit
expand/collapseReferences and Additional Information (s37539) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
expand/collapseCrosswell Seismology (t5600) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Crosswell methods use seismic tomography to image the reservoir zone between two or more wells. This topic introduces you to crosswell techniques and helps you understand when and where to apply them.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseIntroduction to Crosswell Seismology (s5601) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • History of Crosswell Seismology
expand/collapseWhen to Run a Crosswell Survey (s5602) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Surface Seismic Imaging and Crosswell Imaging
  • Where Does Crosswell Seismology Work?
  • Typical Crosswell Seismic Data Applications
expand/collapseCrosswell Data Acquisition (s5603) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Downhole Sources and Receivers
  • Tube Waves and Their Attenuation
  • Pre-Survey Planning
expand/collapseCrosswell Seismic Data Processing and Analysis (s5604) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Crosswell Seismic Surveys and Surface Seismic Surveys
  • Crosswell Direct Arrival Traveltime Tomography
  • Crosswell reflection Imaging
expand/collapseCrosswell Seismology Case Studies (s5605) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Crosswell Seismic Imaging of Reservoir Changes Caused by Injection
  • Crosswell Seismic Interpretation: An offshore Case Study
expand/collapseCrosswell Seismology Exercises (s5606)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
  • Exercise 11
  • Exercise 12
expand/collapseCrosswell Seismology References and Additional Information (s5607) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Crosswell Seismology References and Additional Information
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseCrosswell Seismology Recommended Practices (s5608) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Crosswell Seismology Recommended Practices
expand/collapseVertical Seismic Profiles (t6365) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Examines VSP sources and receivers, and presents guidelines for planning and executing VSP surveys. Discusses data acquisition, processing and interpretation, and methods for correlating VSP and seismic data. Provides examples of VSP exploration and applications.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseIntroduction to Vertical Seismic Profiles (s6366) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Background
expand/collapseVSP Survey Fundamentals (s6368) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The VSP Measurement Procedure
  • When VSP Should Be Considered
expand/collapseVSP Survey Recording Geometries (s6371) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Offset Walkaway and Zero-offset Geometries
  • Inverse VSP
expand/collapseThe VSP Receiver (s6374) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Requirements of VSP Receivers
  • Multi-Level Receiver Arrays
expand/collapseThe VSP Source (s6378) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Requirements of VSP Sources
  • Land-Based VSP Source Mechanisms
  • Offshore Energy Sources
expand/collapseRecording Systems (s6382) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapsePre-Survey Modeling (s6384) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Importance of Pre-Survey Modeling
expand/collapseVSP Acquisition Practices and Concerns (s6386) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Acquisition Practices
  • Acquisition Concerns Unique to VSP
expand/collapseVSP Processing Fundamentals (s6389) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Principles of VSP Processing
  • Wavefield Separation Techniques
  • Deconvolution of VSP Data
  • Shifting VSP Times
  • Comparing the VSP with Surface Seismic Data
  • Processing Three-Component VSP Data
  • VSP Imaging
expand/collapseVSP Applications (s6397) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Interpretation
  • VSP Imaging
  • Use of VSP Data
  • Role of VSP
  • Vsp and Well Completion
  • Salt Proximity Analyses
  • Microseismicity from Borehole Geophone Arrays
  • Shear-Wave Vertical Seismic Profiling
  • 3D VSP
expand/collapseSummary (s6407) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Summary
expand/collapseVertical Seismic Profiles: References and Additional Information (s6409) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Further Reading
  • References
expand/collapseVertical Seismic Profiles: Exercises (s6412)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
  • Exercise 11
  • Exercise 12
  • Exercise 13
  • Exercise 14
  • Exercise 15
  • Exercise 16
expand/collapseOther Geophysical Techniques (t996) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 20 minutes 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Presents in-situ velocity measurements. Integrates acoustic-log data with velocity survey data. Describes interpretation of first break arrival times and considerations in constructing a synthetic seismogram. Emphasizes correlation between the seismic section and the synthetic seismogram.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseBorehole Velocity Measurements (s573) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Acoustic Logging: Basic Principles
  • Acoustic Logging Tools
  • Acoustic Logging, Surface Equipment
  • Acoustic Logging Procedures
  • Acoustic Log Presentation
  • Acoustic Log, Sources of Error
  • Acoustic Log Editing
  • Velocity Surveys, Basic Principles
  • Well Geophones and Surface Equipment
  • Velocity Survey Procedures
  • Velocity Surveys: Geophone Locations
  • Velocity Surveys: Quality Control
  • Velocity Surveys in Deviated Wells
  • Velocity Surveys and Refraction Effects
  • Velocity Surveys on Land
  • Time-Depth Conversion
  • Vibroseis as a Source
  • Acoustic Log Calibration
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseOther Geophysical Techniques: References and Additional Information (s1890) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseMicroseismic Studies of Reservoirs (t37056) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

5 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This course introduces the basics of using microseismic surveys to study hydrocarbon reservoirs. A microseismic survey is a 3D technology used to monitor subsurface processes by analyzing microearthquakes. Microearthquakes occur when production, injection or hydraulic fracturing cause changes in the pore pressure of a hydrocarbon reservoir that trigger slippage on bedding planes or fractures. The course begins with basic topics required to understand microseismic events and then discusses applications of microseismic surveys. Among the applications are monitoring fracture stimulation operations and relating production to microseismic data. The course includes examples, exercises and offers a list of digital papers for those interested in more information about a particular topic.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseApplications for Microseismic Surveys (s37057) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Microearthquake Introduction
  • Microearthquakes and Pore Pressure
  • Reservoir Studies using Microseismic Surveys
  • Mircoseismic and Hydraulic Fracturing
  • Other Microseismic Applications
  • Microseismic Events Summary
expand/collapseAnatomy of Microseismic Events (s37058) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Microseismic Introduction
  • Wave Types
  • Isotropic Versus Anisotropic Media
  • Velocity Differences
  • Geometric spreading differences
  • Attenuation Differences
  • Dislocation Models for Microearthquakes
  • Microseismic Events in Isotropic Media
  • Microseismic Events in Anisotropic Media
  • Summary
expand/collapseRelating Stress and Pore Pressure to Microseismic Events (s37180) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Stress and Pore Pressure Introduction
  • Basics of Stress, Strain and Pore Pressure
  • Principal Stresses
  • Making Elastic Constants More Intuitive
  • Poroelastic stresses and strains
  • Modeling Reservoir Stress
  • Overburden and Normal Pore Pressure
  • Horizontal Response To Overburden
  • Tectonic Stresses
  • Relating stress and pore pressure
  • Estimating the Three Principal Stresses
  • Summary
expand/collapseFailure Criteria for Microearthquakes (s37110) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Failure Criteria Introduction
  • Compressive Failure
  • Pore Collapse
  • Natural faults and fractures
  • Hydraulically Induced Fractures
  • Determining the extent and nature of fracturing
expand/collapseGetting a First Velocity Model for Event Location (s37117) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Velocity Model Introduction
  • Alignment of geophones
  • Velocity as a function of frequency
  • Building layered anisotropic models
  • Lateral Heterogeneity Between Wells
  • First Velocity Model Summary
expand/collapseUpdating the Velocity Using Microseismic Events (s37124) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Starting Velocity Introduction
  • Finding microseismic locations with a known velocity model
  • Advantages to updating velocity models
  • Fermat’s Principle
  • Unknown Source Location
  • Velocity Model Summary
expand/collapseSource Mechanisms of Microearthquakes (s37217) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Elements of a Source Mechanism Introduction
  • Elements of a Source Mechanism
  • Stress Drop
  • Determining the Source Moment Tensor with Limited Recorders
  • Reservoir Controls upon Source Mechanisms
  • Summary
expand/collapseInterpreting Microseismic Patterns and Source Mechanism Evolution (s37224) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Interpreting Microseismic
  • Finding Faults and Natural Fractures
  • Systematic Changes in Source Mechanisms During Hydraulic Fracturing or Production
  • Summary
expand/collapseMonitoring Shale Gas Through Hydraulic Fracturing (s37228) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Are Shales Homogeneous?
  • Where is the Gas?
  • Recovering Gas from Shale using Hydraulic Fracturing
expand/collapseMicroseismic Monitoring Reservoirs without Hydraulic Fracturing (s37233) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Source Mechanisms for Normal Production
  • Injection Source Mechanisms
  • Pore Pressure Monitoring
  • Saturation Changes
  • Summary
expand/collapseEstimating Reservoir Properties using Microseismic Events (s37199) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Production Changes in Microseismic Events
  • Microseismic Events Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing
expand/collapseDetermining the Best Interval for Production (s37200) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Covariance Matrix for the Production Data 
expand/collapseSurface Seismic Compliment to Microseismic Surveys (s37201) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction Detecting Reservoir Properties Before Drilling
  • Correlating Surface Seismic Attributes with Microseismic Data
expand/collapseThe Future of Microseismic Developments (s37202) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Better Processing for Event Locations and Mechanisms
  • Improved Exploration and Development of Reservoirs
  • Microseismic Surveys Summary
expand/collapseMicroseismic: Exercises (s37131)  LearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Exercises 1
  • Exercises 2
  • Exercises 3
  • Exercises 4
  • Exercises 5
  • Exercises 6
  • Exercises 7
  • Exercises 8
  • Exercises 9
  • Exercises 10
  • Exercises 11
  • Exercises 12
  • Exercises 13
  • Exercises 14
  • Exercises 15
expand/collapseMicroseismic: References and Additional Information (s37149) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References

Petroleum Engineering

Petroleum Production Performance

expand/collapseFluid Flow and the Production System (t38341) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

6 hours 30 minutes

(average of 78 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes the basic components of a flowing well production system and examines how they are related to each other. Examines in detail the concepts of inflow performance, lift performance and surface choke performance. Introduces and demonstrates a systems analysis approach to evaluating and optimizing well performance. Presents methods for evaluating production performance, including techniques for decline curve analysis.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseProduction Systems  (s38342) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Production System Overview
  • Reservoir Inflow Performance: Fluid Flow and Permeability
  • Reservoir Inflow Performance: Productivity Index
  • Reservoir Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
  • Lift Performance: Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradient Correlations
  • Production System Performance: Adding Surface Control Using Chokes
  • Production System Analysis: An Integrated Approach
expand/collapseInflow Performance Relationship  (s38362) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Inflow Performance Relationship Introduction
  • Inflow Performance Relationship: Influence of Reservoir Characteristics
  • IPR Determination: Vogel Method
  • IPR Determination: Standing's Extension of Vogel's Method
  • IPR Determination: Fetkovich Method
  • IPR and Skin Effect
  • IPR and Flow Efficiency: Standing Type Curves
  • Conducting an Inflow Performance Test
expand/collapseLift Performance  (s38396) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Pipe Pressure Loss Components
  • Variables Affecting Pressure Loss in Pipe
  • Vertical Flow Correlations
  • Horizontal Flow Correlations
  • Pressure Traverse Curves
  • Heading in Flowing Wells
expand/collapseFlowing Well Performance (s38450) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Surface Chokes: General Description
  • Choke Performance Relationships
  • Integrating Inflow, Lift and Surface Performance
  • Applications of Integrated Production System Analysis
expand/collapseProduction Rate Decline Curves (s38458) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Production Rate Decline Curves Overview
  • Decline Types
  • Decline Curve Graphical Representation
  • Constant Percentage Decline Curve Applications
  • Production Data Collections, Analysis, and Smoothing
  • Incorporating Changes in Operating Practice
  • Estimating Gas Well Reserves
expand/collapseArtificial Lift Methods (t37801) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

8 hours 30 minutes

(average of 72.85 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces artificial lift methods, including gas lift, pump-assisted lift, and plunger lift. Discusses applications, design, and installation of each method, as well as operational and monitoring recommendations.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseArtificial Lift Overview (s37802) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Artificial Lift
  • Selecting an Artificial Lift Method
expand/collapseGas Lift (s37806) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Gas Lift System Overview
  • Gas Lift Applications
  • Downhole Installations
  • Gas Lift Valves
  • Gas Lift Valve Mechanics
  • Continuous Gas Lift
  • Intermittent Gas Lift
  • Practical Aspects of Well Unloading and Operation
  • Gas Lift Surface Facilities
expand/collapseReciprocating Rod Pump Systems (s37819) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Rod Pumping Overview
  • Surface Equipment
  • Subsurface Equipment
  • Subsurface Pump Selection
  • Rod String Design
  • API System Design Procedure
  • Pumping Unit Design Procedure – Rapid Analysis
  • Polished Rod Dynamometers
  • Rod Load Versus Displacement
  • System Monitoring: Dynagraphs
expand/collapseProgressive Cavity Pump Systems (s37832) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • PCP System Overview
  • PCP System Components
  • PCP System Applications
  • PCP System Design and Installation
  • PCP Operation
expand/collapseHydraulic Pump Systems (s37840) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Hydraulic Pumping: Overview
  • Subsurface Hydraulic Pumps
  • Downhole Installations
  • Surface Facilities
  • Reciprocating Pumps: System Design
  • Reciprocating Pumps: Operating Considerations
  • Jet Pumps: Design and Operation
expand/collapseElectrical Submersible Pump Systems (s37850) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • ESP System Overview
  • ESP Power Components
  • ESP Operating Principles
  • ESP System Design
  • ESP System Operation
expand/collapsePlunger Lift Systems (s37858) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Plunger Lift Overview
  • Plunger Lift Design and Installation

Production Equipment and Operations

expand/collapseWellheads, Flow Control Equipment and Flowlines (t110) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Reviews the types and features of casing and tubing housings, Christmas tree components and flowline valves, as well as flowline sizing, installations and operating procedures. Describes the basic design and operating requirements of typical production manifolds and presents a wide variety of equipment options.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseCasing and Tubing Head Equipment (s1370) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Casing Heads
  • Casing Spools
  • Casing Hangers
  • Packoffs and Isolation Seals
  • Bowl Protectors
  • Test Plugs
  • Mudline Suspension Systems
  • Tubing Heads
  • Tubing Hangers and Tubing Head Adapters
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
expand/collapseFlow Control at the Wellhead (s3575) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Gate Valves
  • Production Chokes
  • Christmas Tree Assemblies
  • Low-Pressure Installations (Examples)
  • High-Pressure Installations (Examples)
  • Flanges and Clamps
  • Independent Wellheads
  • Unitized Wellheads
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
expand/collapseFlowlines (s3576) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Design Parameters
  • Line Pipe Fabrication and Specifications
  • Pressure Loss Calculations
  • Sizing of Lines
  • Effect of Design on Well Performance
  • Installation and Testing
  • Pipe Insulation
  • Temperature Differentials
  • Corrosion Control (External)
  • Corrosion Control (Internal)
  • Cleaning and Inspection
expand/collapseValves, Fittings and Flanges (s3577) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Gate Valves
  • Plug Valves and Ball Valves
  • Globe Valves
  • Butterfly Valves
  • Diaphragm Valves
  • Check Valves
  • Pipe Fittings
expand/collapseProduction Manifolds (s1376) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Components
  • Fabrication
expand/collapseWellheads, Flow Control Equipment and Flowlines: References and Additional  (s1377) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseFluid Separation and Treatment (t111) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes the functions and components of vertical and horizontal separators and oil treating equipment. Illustrates design considerations, including sizing calculations, for both two-phase and three-phase flow.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseProduction Facility Overview (s1378) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Fluid Treatment Objectives
  • Production and Separation of Well Fluids
  • Treatment and Handling of Separated Fluids
  • Additional Facility Functions
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
expand/collapseSeparation of Produced Fluids (s1379) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Two-Phase(Liquid-Gas) Separation
  • Three-Phase (Gas, Oil and Water) Separation
  • Two-Phase Horizontal Separators
  • Two-Phase Vertical Separators
  • Spherical Separators
  • Double-Barreled and Filter-Type Separators
  • Comparison of Two-Phase Separator Types
  • Three-Phase Horizontal Separators
  • Three-Phase Vertical Separators
  • Internal Components
  • Pressure and Level Controllers
  • Pressure Relief Valves and Rupture Discs
  • Operating Problems
  • Sizing Two-Phase Separators
  • Sizing Three-Phase Separators
  • Stage Separation
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
expand/collapseTreatment of Separation Oil (s1380) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Emulsions and Their Treatment
  • Vertical Treaters
  • Horizontal Treaters
  • Electrostatic Treaters
  • Chemical Treatment
  • Other Treating Equipment
  • Sizing of Treating Equipment
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
expand/collapseFluid Separation and Treatment: References and Additional Information (s1381) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Nomenclature
expand/collapseOilfield Safety (t113) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces principles and general procedures for managing emergencies, reporting and investigating accidents, and maintaining safety in day-to-day activities. Addresses hazards that are common to most oil and gas sites, emphasizing awareness, planning and training as keys to preventing accidents.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseEmergency Preparedness (s1389) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Hazard Awareness
  • Safety Meetings
  • Emergency Plan Development
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseIncident Reporting and Investigation (s1390) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Accidents and Incidents
  • Reporting Procedures
  • Investigation Procedures
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
expand/collapseSafety Hazards in Oil and Gas Production (s1392) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Water-Related Hazards
  • Unconfined Vapor Releases
  • Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE)
  • Compressor Station Hazards
  • Pyrophoric Iron Sulfide
  • Hydrogen Sulfide (Sour Gas)
  • Chemical Hazards
  • Electrical Hazards
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No.6
expand/collapseSafe Work Practices (s1393) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Site Housekeeping
  • Lifting and Handling of Materials by Hand
  • Rigging Safety and Work at Heights
  • Confined/Enclosed Space Entry
  • Shutdown and Startup Procedures
  • Welding and the Use of Power Tools
  • Well Workovers
  • Driving Safety Guidelines
  • First Aid: General Considerations
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
  • Exercise No. 7
  • Exercise No. 8
  • Exercise No. 9
  • Exercise No. 10
  • Exercise No. 11
expand/collapseSafety and Control of Site Activities (s1394) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Work Permit Systems
  • Safety Inspection Procedures
  • Site Security
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
expand/collapseFire Prevention and Control (s1397) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Fire Chemistry
  • Detection of Flammable and Toxic Atmospheres
  • Properties of Flammable and Combustible Liquids
  • Control of Ignition Sources
  • Fire Protection Systems and Equipment
  • Firefighting Agents
  • Hand-held Fire Extinguishers
  • Firefighter Training
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
  • Exercise No. 4
  • Exercise No. 5
  • Exercise No. 6
  • Exercise No. 7
  • Exercise No. 8
  • Exercise No. 9
  • Exercise No. 10
  • Exercise No. 11
  • Exercise No. 12
expand/collapseOilfield Safety: References and Additional Information (s1400) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Sources of Information for Safety Standards and Practices
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseCased Hole Logging (t114) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the logging techniques used in cased wells. Describes various types of radioactive tools for determining lithology and fluid saturation, acoustic devices for well integrity logging, and a range of flow monitoring logs. Highlights each tool's operating principles.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseCased Hole Logging Overview (s1401) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Typical Setup
  • Logging Environment
  • Regions of Investigation for Cased Hole Tools
expand/collapseFormation Evaluation in Cased Holes (s1402) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Pulsed Neutron Capture Measurement
  • Cased Hole Resistivity Tool
  • Pulsed Neutron Capture Log Presentations
  • Pulsed Neutron Capture Log Applications
  • Carbon-Oxygen (C/O) Measurement
  • Compensated Neutron Measurement
  • Natural Gamma Ray Measurement
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
expand/collapseCement Bond Evaluation (s1403) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Cement Bond Log (CBL)
  • Microannulus Effects, Tool Centralization and Quality Control
  • Cement Bond Index
  • Wellbore-Compensated CBL
  • Pad-Type CBL
  • Pulse-Echo CBL and Circumferential Imaging Tools
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
expand/collapseCasing Inspection (s3578) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Mechanical Calipers
  • Electromagnetic Tools
  • Casing Potential Surveys
  • Acoustic Casing Inspection
  • Exercise 1
expand/collapseQualitative Flow Evaluation (s1404) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Temperature Surveys
  • Borehole Noise Surveys
  • Radioactive Tracer Surveys
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
expand/collapseFlow Rate Determination in the Wellbore (s1405) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Fluid Behavior
  • Injection Well Profiling Using Radioactive Tracers
  • Flowmeters (Turbine Type)
  • Multiphase Vertical Flow
  • Multiphase Flow in Deviated Wells
  • Oxygen Activation Measurement
expand/collapseProduction Logging of Multiphase Flow in Horizontal Wells (s5609) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Configurations and Flow Regimes
  • Logging Equipment and Techniques Used in Horizontal Wells
  • Conventional Production Logging Tools
  • Production Logging Tools Designed for Horizontal Wells
  • Case Studies
  • References
  • Exercise 1
  • Exercise 2
  • Exercise 3
  • Exercise 4
  • Exercise 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Exercise 7
  • Exercise 8
  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10
expand/collapseCased Hole Logging: References and Additional Information (s1406) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Nomenclature
  • Websites
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseIntelligent Completions (t36209) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: As the oil industry matures, it must seek better and more efficient ways to exploit diminishing resources. To maximize production and improve the economics of reservoirs, oil companies must resort to a wide range of sophisticated completion strategies. By real-time data monitoring with remote-controlled sliding sleeves or variable chokes, intelligent completions help operators to better manage production, eliminate or reduce interventions and associated production downtime, well costs and risks. This new IPIMS topic discusses the overall evolution of intelligent well completions, and describes a variety of intelligent well technologies that focus on measurement and control techniques to optimize oil and gas production.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Intelligent Completions (s36210) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Historical Perspective
expand/collapseFundamentals of Pressure Sensors (s36213) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Pressure Sensing Technology
  • Exploiting Crystal Properties of Quartz
  • Quartz Sensors
expand/collapseFiber Optic Sensing and Telemetry Systems (s36217) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Downhole Fiber Optics
  • Fundamentals of Light Propagation
  • Fiber Optic Transmission Modes
  • Architecture of Optical Sensor Systems
  • Fiber Optic Gratings
  • Bragg Grating Sensors
  • Distributed Temperature Sensing Systems
  • DTS Applications
expand/collapseDownhole Flow Control (s36226) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Real-time Flow Control
expand/collapseAssessing Reliability (s36228) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Reliability and Environmental Modeling
  • Failure Analysis and Testing Standards
expand/collapseIntelligent Completions: References and Further Reading (s36231) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Websites
expand/collapseOverview of Rigless Well Intervention (t38106) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

1 hour 20 minutes

(average of 40 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic introduces the basic terminology, purpose, and economics of rigless well intervention. The health, safety, and environment (HSE) factors that must be considered when planning for and carrying out rigless well intervention activities are presented. The topic also covers the various tasks, roles, and responsibilities along with general preparation and well selection guidelines.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Rigless Well Intervention (s38107) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Well Intervention Described
  • Economics of Rigless Well Intervention
  • HSE and Well Intervention
expand/collapseOperating Considerations in Rigless Well Intervention (s38112) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Tasks, Roles, and Responsibilities
  • Selection of Well Candidates
  • General Preparation for Rigless Well Intervention
expand/collapseSlickline Well Intervention (t38011) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

5 hours 12 minutes

(average of 52 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic presents the basic elements of a slickline well intervention and outlines the steps involved in pre-job planning, job execution, and post-job activities from a field engineering/operations standpoint. The general surface and subsurface equipment used in slickline operations are discussed as well as downhole slickline tools provided by the major service companies and used by slickline operators. In addition, this topic describes general operating procedures for carrying out slickline operations, with an emphasis on HSE considerations.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseOverview of Slickline Well Intervention  (s38012) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Slickline Described
  • HSE and Slickline Operations
expand/collapseBasic Slickline Equipment  (s38016) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Equipment Overview
  • Wireline
  • Slickline Units
  • Data Acquisition Systems
  • Pressure Control Equipment
  • Hoisting System
  • Basic Slickline Tool String
  • Running and Pulling Tools
expand/collapseSlickline Service Tools (s38026) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Tubing Conditioning and Servicing Tools
  • Fishing Tools
  • Bailers
  • Specialty Tools
expand/collapseSubsurface Flow Controls (s38033) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Slickline Operations and Subsurface Flow Controls
  • Lock Mandrels
  • Plugs
  • Subsurface Safety Valves
  • Subsurface Chokes
  • Gas Lift Equipment
  • Tubing Packoffs
  • Sliding Sleeves
expand/collapseAdvanced Slickline Applications (s38043) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Depth Control for Advanced Slickline Applications
  • Tool Activation
  • Memory Production Logging
  • Real-Time Slickline
expand/collapseSlickline Operations (s38050) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Job Preparation and Rig-Up
  • Tubing Conditioning, Testing and Repair
  • Sand Bailing, Paraffin and Scale Removal
  • Pressure Surveys, Memory Production Logging and Perforating
  • Subsurface Safety Valves
  • Plugs and Flow Controls
  • Wireline Fishing
  • Post-Job Activities and Rig-Down
expand/collapseElectric Line Well Intervention (t38206) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 35 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic presents the basic elements of an electric line well intervention and outlines the steps involved in pre-job planning, job execution, and post-job activities from a field engineering/operations standpoint. The general surface and subsurface equipment used in electric line operations are discussed as well as downhole tools provided by the major service companies and used by electric line operators. In addition, this topic describes general operating procedures for carrying out electric line operations, with an emphasis on HSE considerations.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseOverview of Electric Line Well Intervention (s38207) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Electric Line Described
  • HSE and Electric Line Operations
expand/collapseBasic Electric Line Equipment  (s38211) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Equipment Overview
  • Electric Wireline
  • Wireline Units for Electric Line Operations
  • Pressure Control Equipment
expand/collapseElectric Line Downhole Tools  (s38217) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Electric Line-Tool String Connection
  • Depth Control in Electric Line Operations
  • Tool String Conveyance
  • Production Logging Tools
  • Through-Tubing Formation Evaluation
  • Cement Bond Evaluation
  • Perforating
  • Tubing and Casing Inspection Tools
expand/collapseElectric Line Operations  (s38226) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Job Preparation and Rig-Up
  • Electric Line Logging Operations
  • Electric Line Well Servicing Operations
  • Risks and Mitigations in Electric Line Operations
  • Post-Job Considerations
expand/collapseCoiled Tubing Well Intervention (t38235) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 35 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic presents the basic elements of a coiled tubing well intervention and outlines the steps involved in pre-job planning, job execution, and post-job activities from a field engineering/operations standpoint. The general surface and subsurface equipment used in coiled tubing operations are discussed, as well as downhole tools provided by the major service companies and used by coiled tubing operators. In addition, this topic describes general operating procedures for carrying out coiled tubing operations, with an emphasis on HSE considerations.

Subtopic Listing:

BROWSELEARNPRINT
expand/collapseOverview of Coiled Tubing Well Intervention  (s38236) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • HSE and Coiled Tubing Well Intervention
expand/collapseBasic Coiled Tubing Equipment  (s38240) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Equipment Overview
  • Coiled Tubing and Reel System
  • Coiled Tubing Injector Assembly
  • Coiled Tubing Pressure Control Equipment
expand/collapseCoiled Tubing Downhole Tools (s38246) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Basic Coiled Tubing Bottomhole Assembly
  • Wellbore Cleanout Tools
  • Fishing and Pipe Recovery
  • Specialty and Support Tools
expand/collapseCoiled Tubing Operations (s38253) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Job Preparation and Rig-Up
  • Well Cleanout and Unloading Operations
  • Coiled Tubing Fishing and Milling
  • Pumping Operations
  • Coiled Tubing-Wireline
  • Coiled Tubing and Artificial Lift
  • Coiled Tubing Drilling

Drilling Engineering

expand/collapseWell Planning (t115) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the drilling procedure and provides a clear "blueprint" for the safe, efficient drilling of a well. Integrates the mud, casing, bit, cementing and safety programs. Presents an understanding of how a well proposal is initiated and justified economically.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseWell Planning Overview (s1407) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Well Objectives and Success Factors
  • Major Components
  • Tasks and Responsibilities
expand/collapseWell Selection (s1408) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Budget Objectives
  • Prospect Selection
  • Reservoir Potential Evaluation
  • Prospect Acquisition and Location Selection
expand/collapseAFE Preparation (s1409) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Geological Input
  • Completion and Testing Requirements
  • Drilling Considerations
  • Cost Estimates and AFE Approval
expand/collapseWell Plan Organization and Data Gathering (s1410) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Outline
  • Information Sources
  • Initial Planning Meeting
  • Environmental and Regulatory Requirements
  • Location, Support and Logistics
  • Pressure Prediction and Well Planning
  • Drilling Problems
expand/collapseWell Design Considerations (s1411) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Casing Settings Depths and Sizes
  • Casing and Tubing Design
  • Wellhead Design
  • Mud Program
  • Cementing Program
  • Bit Program
  • Hydraulics Program
  • Directional Planning and Deviation Control
  • Logging, Coring and Testing
expand/collapseRig Design Considerations (s1412) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Well Control and Blowout Prevention
  • Rig Specifications
expand/collapseProcedures (s1413) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Drilling and Completion
  • Support and Logistics
  • Emergencies
expand/collapseDrilling Contracts (s1414) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Contract Procurement
  • Bidding Considerations
expand/collapseCost Reviews (s1415) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Drilling and Completion Costs
  • AFE and Well Plan Review
expand/collapseWell Planning: References and Additional Information (s1416) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Example Well Plan: Brazorian County, TX.
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseDrill String Components (t116) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the tools that make up a typical drill string, including the kelly, the drill pipe, and the components of the bottomhole assembly. Describes design, selection, performance and evaluation of common drill bit types. Emphasizes the general application of various downhole tools and development of sound drilling practices.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseDrill String Overview (s1425) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Design Considerations
  • Principal Components
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseKelly (s1426) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Description
  • Performance Considerations
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDrill Pipe (s1427) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Dimensions and Strengths
  • Upsets
  • Tool Joints
  • Capacity and Displacement
  • Handling Guidelines
  • Fatigue and Drill String Failures
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
  • Exercise No.4
  • Exercise No.5
expand/collapseDrill Collars (s1428) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Description
  • Tapered Strings
  • Special Features
  • Connections
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseHeavy Wall Drill Pipe (s3821) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Description
expand/collapseBottomhole Assembly Tools (s3822) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Stabilizers
  • Drilling Jars
  • Reamers
  • Hole Openers
  • Float Subs
  • Circulating Subs
  • Crossover Subs
  • Vibration Dampeners
  • Drill Strings for High-Angle Drilling
expand/collapseDrill String Components: References and Additional Information (s3823) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseDrill Bits (t983) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes design, selection, performance and evaluation of common drill bit types. Emphasizes the general application of various downhole tools and development of sound drilling practices.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Drill Bits (s1429) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Bit Types and IADC Classifications
  • Rock Failure Mechanisms
expand/collapseRoller Cone Bit Design (s1430) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Geometry
  • Cutting Elements
  • Bearings
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseFixed Cutter Bit Design (s1431) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Body Materials
  • Diamond Cutting Elements
  • Bit Profiles and Hydraulic Systems
  • Design Features Summary
expand/collapseBit Hydraulics (s1432) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Basic Concepts
  • Fixed Cutter Bits: Special Considerations
  • Hydraulics Optimization Criteria
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseBit Selection Criteria (s1433) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Formation Properties
  • Bit Specifications and Rig Capabilities
expand/collapseBit Grading and Evaluation (s1434) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • IADC Grading System
  • Traditional Grading Criteria: Rolling Cutter Bits
  • Factors Affecting Bit Wear
  • Bit Run Economics
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseBit Operating Guidelines (s1435) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Considerations
  • Roller Cone Bits
  • Fixed Cutter Bits
expand/collapseBit Run Optimization (s36874) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Bit Balling
  • Roller Cone Bit Life: Bearing , Tooth Failure Critieria
  • Thermal and Mechanical Effects on PDC Bit Wear Rates
  • PDC Bit Optimization in Downhole Motor Drilling
expand/collapseDrill Bits: References and Additional Information (s1436) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Determination of Optimal Bit Energy
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseDrilling Fluids and the Circulating System (t117) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces drilling fluid types and describes field monitoring of their properties, along with cleaning and circulation equipment employed at the wellsite. Emphasizes applications of drilling fluids and unique properties which make each fluid suitable to control specific subsurface environments. Incorporates field footage of equipment with laboratory footage showing mud components and testing procedures.Summarizes environmental concerns related to use and disposal of drilling fluids. Includes basic calculations used in drilling fluid engineering.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseDrilling Fluids Overview (s1419) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Principal Functions of Drilling Fluids
  • Drilling Fluid Classifications
  • Drilling Fluid Composition
  • Drilling Fluid Properties
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseDrilling Rig Circulating System (s3817) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Description
  • Auxiliary Systems
  • Mud Pumps
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDrilling Fluid Components and Additives (s1420) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Drilling Fluid Components
  • Weighting Materials
  • Viscosifiers
  • Filtration Control Materials
  • Rheology Control Materials
  • Alkalinity and pH Control Materials
  • Lost Circulation Materials
  • Surface Active Agents
  • Lubricating Materials
  • Flocculating Materials
  • Shale-Stabilizing Materials
  • Inhibitors
  • Polymers
  • Inorganic Acids, Bases and Salts
  • High-Temperature, High-Pressure (HPHT) Components and Additives
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseDrilling Fluid Systems (s1421) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Classification of Water-Base Drilling Fluid Systems
  • Nondispersed-Noninhibited Water-Base Systems
  • Nondispersed-Inhibited Water-Based Systems
  • Dispersed-Noninhibited Water-Base System
  • Dispersed-Inhibited Water-Base Systems
  • Oil-Base (Invert-Emulsion) Systems
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseSolids Control (s1424) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Solids Control in Drilling Operations
  • Solids Control Methods
  • Principles of Solids Removal
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseClay Chemistry (s1423) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Fundamental Structure
  • Clay Mineral Groups
  • Clays in Drilling Fluids
  • Summary of Physiochemical Reactions
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapseEnvironmental Aspects of Drilling Mud Engineering (s36785) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Environmental Issues in Drilling Operations
  • Surface Disposal Methods
  • Subsurface Disposal Methods
expand/collapseField Tests of Drilling Fluids (s1422) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Density (Mud Weight)
  • Funnel Viscosity
  • Apparent Viscosity, Plastic Viscosity, Yield Point and Gel Strength
  • API Standard Filtration Test
  • API HP/HT Filtration Test
  • Sand Content
  • Oil, Water and Solids Content
  • Methylene Blue Capacity
  • pH
  • Mud and Filtrate Alkalinity
  • Excess Lime Content
  • Chloride Content
  • Total Hardness
  • Resistivity
  • Oil-Base Drilling Fluid Tests
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseMud Engineering Calculations (s36784) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Units of Measurement
  • Capacity, Volume and Displacement
  • Pump Output
  • Hydrostatic Pressure
  • Mud Formulation
expand/collapseDrilling Fluids and the Circulating System: References and Additional Information (s36132) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseDirectional and Horizontal Drilling (t118) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces basic principles of wellbore deviation and directional control. Describes features, applications, benefits and limitations of various directional and horizontal well profiles. Discusses tools, planning, survey techniques and operating practices, pointing out problems that are unique to horizontal and high-angle directional drilling.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseDirectional Drilling Overview (s1443) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • History
  • Applications
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseDeviation in Vertical Wells (s1444) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Causes
  • Control Methods
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseDirectional Drilling Tools and Techniques (s1445) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Well Trajectory Planning
  • Downhole Mud Motors
  • Rotary Steerable Systems
  • Specialized Bottomhole Assemblies
  • Deflection Tools
  • Survey Tools
  • Wireline Steering Systems
  • MWD and LWD Systems
  • EMWD Systems
  • Well Trajectory Calculations
  • Geologic Steering
  • Azimuth Change
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
  • Exercise No.4
  • Exercise No.5
  • Exercise No.6
expand/collapseHorizontal Wells (s1446) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Well Configurations
  • Long Turn Radius Drilling
  • Medium Turn Radius Drilling
  • Short Turn Radius Drilling
  • Ultra-Short Turn Radius Drilling
  • Trajectory Planning
  • Build Curve Design
  • Horizontal Targeting
  • Formation Evaluation Aspects
  • Completion and Stimulation Aspects
  • Artificial Lift Considerations
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
expand/collapseDrilling Hydraulics in Deviated Wells (s1447) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Borehole Stability
  • Fluid Velocity and Flow Regimes
  • Cuttings Transport
expand/collapseDrill String and Bit Considerations in Deviated Wells (s3819) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Drill String Design
  • Bit Selection
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseUnderbalanced Drilling in Directional Wells (s36863) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Drilling Directional Wells Underbalanced
expand/collapseDirectional and Horizontal Drilling: References and Additional Information (s3820) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Nomenclature
  • SI Metric Conversion Factors for Common Field Units
expand/collapseUnderbalanced Drilling (t23393) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This presentation covers the underbalanced drilling method, which is defined as the practice of drilling a well with the wellbore fluid gradient less than the natural formation gradient. Besides minimizing lost circulation and increasing the penetration rate, this technique has a widely recognized benefit of minimizing the damage caused by invasion of drilling fluid into the formation. Different underbalanced drilling equipment and techniques are discussed under this topic. The underbalanced well classification system used by the industry and several case studies are also covered in this presentation.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Underbalanced Drilling (s23394) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Underbalanced Drilling Overview
  • Underbalanced Drilling Techniques
  • Benefits and Limitations of Underbalanced Drilling
expand/collapseDry Air Drilling (s23398) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Dry Air Drilling Overview
  • Air Drilling Equipment
  • Dry Air Drilling Procedures and Operating Considerations
  • Downhole Fires
  • Reverse Circulation Drilling
expand/collapseNitrogen Drilling (s23404) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Nitrogen Drilling Overview
  • Liquid (Cryogenic) Nitrogen Supply
  • On-Site Generated Nitrogen (Membrane Filter)
  • Nitrogen Drilling Procedures and Operating Considerations
expand/collapseNatural Gas Drilling (s23409) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Natural Gas Drilling Overview
expand/collapseMist Drilling (s23411) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Mist Drilling Overview
expand/collapseFoam Drilling (s23413) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Foam Drilling Overview
  • Hole Cleaning Considerations
  • Foam Drilling Equipment
  • Composition of Injected Liquid
  • Foam Drilling Procedures and Operating Considerations
  • Limitations of Foam Drilling
expand/collapseStiff Foam Drilling (s23420) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Stiff Foam Drilling Overview
  • Hole Cleaning Considerations
  • Stiff Foam Drilling Equipment
  • Viscosifiers
  • Stiff Foam Drilling Procedures and Operating Considerations
  • Limitations of Stiff Foam Drilling
expand/collapseGasified Liquids (s23427) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Gasified Liquid Drilling Overview
  • Gasification Techniques
  • Gas Supply and Compression Equipment
  • Circulating Pressures
  • Hole Cleaning Considerations
  • Drill String
  • Gasified Liquid Drilling Procedures and Operating Considerations
  • Limitations of Gasified Liquid Drilling
expand/collapseFlow-Drilling (s23436) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Flow Drilling Overview
  • Flow Drilling Surface Equipment
  • Rotating Control Head
  • Flow Drilling Procedures and Operating Considerations
  • Limitations of Flow Drilling
expand/collapseSnub Drilling (s23441) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Snub Drilling Overview
  • Snubbing Units
expand/collapseUnderbalanced Drilling: General Issues (s23443) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Coiled Tubing for Underbalanced Drilling
  • Underbalanced Directional Drilling
  • Well Logging of Underbalanced Holes
  • Safety in Underbalanced Drilling
  • Underbalanced Well Classification System
  • Selection of Candidates for UBD
  • Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD)
expand/collapseCase Studies (s23447) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Underbalanced Drilling using Coiled Tubing
  • Foam Drilling in a Fractured Carbonate
  • Gasified Liquid Drilling for Field Development
  • Field Revitalization using Underbalanced Drilling
expand/collapseUnderbalanced Drilling: References and Additional Information (s23448) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Websites
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseDrilling Problems and Drilling Optimization (t119) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 40 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Describes occurrences, preventive measures and remedial actions for common downhole drilling problems. Addresses considerations involved in drilling abnormal pressures, working in sour gas environments and planning fishing operations. Discusses procedures for optimizing bit hydraulics, bit weight and rotary speed to attain minimum cost drilling. Emphasizes importance of the mud system in meeting well objectives.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseDrilling Objectives (s1437) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
expand/collapsePressure, Hydraulics and Hole Cleaning (s1438) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Wellbore and Formation Pressure
  • Buoyancy
  • Rheological Models
  • Flow Regimes
  • System Pressure Loss
  • Surge and Swab Effects
  • Hole Cleaning
  • Contamination of Water-Based Drilling Fluids
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
  • Exercise No.3
  • Exercise No.4
  • Exercise No.5
  • Exercise No.6
expand/collapseAbnormal Pressure Environments (s1439) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Occurrences
  • Origins
  • Prediction and Detection
expand/collapseKick Detection and Control (s1440) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Precautionary Measures
  • Surface Indications
  • Initial Shut-in Procedures
  • Constant Bottomhole Pressure Concept
  • Control Methods
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseLost Circulation (s1441) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Occurrences and Prevention
  • Diagnosis
  • Remedial Measures
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseBorehole Instability (s1442) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Shale Instability
  • Salt Sections
  • Hard or Abrasive Formations
expand/collapseStuck Pipe (s3827) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Differential Pressure Sticking
  • Key Seating
  • Solids Accumulation and Mechanical Sticking
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseFishing Operations (s3828) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • General Categories
  • Planning and Preparation
  • Pipe Recovery
  • Wireline Tool Recovery and Junk Removal
  • Auxiliary Tools
  • Economics
  • Exercise No.1
expand/collapseHydrogen Sulfide (s3829) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Physical Properties
  • Toxic Effects
  • Corrosive Effects
  • Detection
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Mud System Considerations
  • Tubulars and B.O.P.E. Design Considerations
expand/collapseDrilling Optimization (s3830) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Minimum Cost Drilling
  • Factors Affecting Penetration Rate
  • Penetration Rate Equations and Drilling Tests
  • Constraints on Bit Weight and Rotary Speed
  • Bit Life Estimation
  • Practical Guidelines
  • Exercise No.1
  • Exercise No.2
expand/collapseDrilling Problems and Drilling Optimization: References and Additional Information (s4656) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
  • Drilling Equations
  • Nomenclature
  • SI Metric Conversion Factors for Common Field Units

Production Facilities Design

expand/collapseOil Systems and Equipment (t6433) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

4 hours

(average of 40 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: These presentations provide an understanding of two-phase and three-phase separators, describe how they work and what the design procedures are for sizing them. Then, different methods and procedures are described for oil treating and associated equipment design. Oil desalting is the process of removing water-soluble salts from an oil stream. This presentation describes the equipment commonly used and provides references for sizing the equipment. Crude oil or condensate stabilization describes the various processes used to stabilize a crude oil or condensate stream, and presents a preliminary method for determining liquid recoveries through stabilization.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseTwo Phase Separators (s12375) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Equipment Description
  • Selection Criteria
  • Vessel Internals
  • Potential Operating Problems
  • Separator Design Theory
  • Horizontal Separator Design
  • Horizontal Separator Design Example (SI Units)
  • Horizontal Separator Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Vertical Separator Design
  • Vertical Separator Design Example (SI Units)
  • Vertical Separator Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Nomenclature
  • References
expand/collapseThree Phase Separators (s12390) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Equipment Description
  • Design Theory
  • Design of Horizontal Separators
  • Horizontal Separator Design Example (Oilfield)
  • Horizontal Separator Design Example (SI Units)
  • Design of Vertical Separators
  • Vertical Separator Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Vertical Separator Design Example (SI Units)
  • Nomenclature
  • References
expand/collapseOil Treaters (s12402) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Equipment Description
  • Treater Theory
  • Treater Design Procedure
  • Vertical Treater Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Vertical Treater Design Example (SI Units)
  • Nomenclature
  • References
expand/collapseDesalting (s12411) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Theory
  • Single and Two Stage Desalting
  • Equipment Description
  • Design Procedure
  • Single-Stage Desalter Design Example (SI Units)
  • Two-Stage Desalter Design Example (SI Units)
  • Multistage Desalter Design Example (SI Units)
  • Single-Stage Desalter Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Two-Stage Desalter Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Multistage Desalter Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Nomenclature
  • References
expand/collapseCrude Stabilization (s12425) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Theory of Crude Stabilization
  • Equipment Description
  • Design Procedure
  • Multi-Stage Separation Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Crude Stabilization Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Multi-Stage Separation Design Example (SI Units)
  • Crude Stabilization Design Example (SI Units)
  • Nomenclature
  • References
expand/collapseOil Systems and Equipment: References and Additional Information (s36137) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseGas Systems and Equipment (t6434) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 40 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Besides sales contract restrictions, several other reasons exist for the removal of acid components from natural gas streams. Among these are personnel safety, odor reduction, and fuel Btu improvement. The process of removing water vapor from a gas stream is called "gas dehydration. This presentation discusses conventional TEG dehydration and presents a method to size and design the glycol dehydration equipment. Compressors are used whenever it is necessary to flow gas from a low pressure system to a higher pressure system. This presentation provides guidelines on selecting the type of compressor to use for each application, determining power requirements, and designing the piping system associated with the compressor.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseAcid Gas Removal (s17090) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Process Description
  • Solid Bed Processes
  • Process Selection
  • Iron Sponge Design Procedure
  • Design Examples (Oilfield Units)
  • Design Examples (SI Units)
  • Nomenclature
expand/collapseGlycol Dehydration (s17099) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Theory
  • Hydrate Formation
  • Dew Point Depression
  • General Process Description
  • Glycol Properties
  • Equipment Description
  • Design Procedure
  • Unit Operating Problems and Troubleshooting
  • Nomenclature
  • Design Example
  • Physical Properties of Glycol
expand/collapseReciprocating Compressors (s17112) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Considerations
  • Performance Considerations
  • Pulsations and Vibrations
  • Process Piping Considerations
  • Fundamental Design
  • Construction Details
  • Specifications
  • Selecting Compressors
  • Nomenclature
  • Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Design Example (SI Units)
expand/collapseGas Systems and Equipment: References and Additional Information (s36135) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseWater Systems and Equipment (t6435) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours

(average of 40 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: In production operations, it is often necessary to handle wastewater. The water must be separated from the oil and disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. This presentation describes the equipment used to separate, treat, collect, and dispose of wastewater, along with procedures for designing a water treating system consisting of skimmer tanks and vessels, plate coalescers, flotation units, and/or disposal piles. Information about equipment selection and sizing for removing suspended solids and dissolved gases from water is also provided.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseTreating Oil from Produced Water (s17075) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Theory
  • Equipment Description
  • Design Procedure
  • Nomenclature
expand/collapseRemoving Solids and Dissolved Gases from Produced Water (s17081) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Theory of Solid Removal
  • Description of Solid Removal Equipment
  • Description of Gas Removal Equipment
  • Design Procedure
  • Nomenclature
  • Design Examples: Gas Removal
  • Design Example: Solid Removal Process
expand/collapseWater Systems and Equipment: References and Additional Information (s36140) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseUtility Systems and Equipment (t6436) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

5 hours 20 minutes

(average of 40 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This topic presents information on fuel system design, providing guidelines for determining the facility fuel requirements and information on selecting equipment needed to treat fuels prior to use. Technical explanations on Fired heaters and their uses, along with guidelines for selecting and specifying a fired heater is presented. The next tutorial provides methods for determining the amount of waste heat energy available, and presents information and procedures on the design of a waste heat recovery system. Then, various components of refrigeration and heating systems are described, and a procedure is established for sizing evaporator duties, condenser duties, compressor horsepower, fan horsepower and duct sizes. In the last two subtopics, a basic understanding of reciprocating and centrifugal pumps is provided.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseFuel Gas Systems (s17125) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Types of Fuel
  • Fuel Requirements
  • Fuel Contaminants
  • Heating Value
  • Fuel Gas Equipment Selection
  • Diesel Fuel Equipment Selection
  • Nomenclature
expand/collapseFired Heaters and Hydrate Control (s17134) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Equipment Description
  • Heater Heat Transfer Basics
  • Hydrate Formation
  • Hydrate Inhibition
  • Design Procedure
  • Nomenclature
  • Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Design Example (SI Units)
expand/collapseHeat Transfer Systems (s17144) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • System Description
  • Theory
  • Design Procedure
  • Design Example (SI Units)
  • Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Nomenclature
expand/collapseWaste Heat Recovery (s17152) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Waste Heat Recovery Systems
  • Sources of Waste Heat
  • Methods of Exhaust Heat Recovery
  • Equipment
  • Theory
  • Design Procedure for an Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery System
  • Nomenclature
expand/collapseHeating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (s17162) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • System Description
  • Theory
  • Equipment Descriptions
  • Design Parameters
  • Design Procedure
  • Nomenclature
  • Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Design Example (SI Units)
expand/collapseReciprocating Pumps (s17172) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Considerations
  • Performance Considerations
  • Pulsations
  • Process Piping Considerations
  • Pump Construction Details
  • Material Considerations
  • Standards
  • Selecting A Reciprocating Pump
  • Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Design Example (SI Units)
  • Nomenclature
  • References
expand/collapseCentrifugal Pumps (s17186) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Considerations
  • Performance Considerations
  • Process Piping Considerations
  • Pump Construction Details
expand/collapseUtility Systems and Equipment: References and Additional Information (s36139) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • References
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapseInstrumentation (t6437) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

6 hours

(average of 40 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This presentation covers the principles of control theory and the popular methods of implementation. Pressure, temperature and, flow measurement equipment types and their selection criteria is explained in detail. Different types and typical mounting practices for Level Instruments is presented. Control valves are described in terms of how to select the proper type of valve, suitable materials, and an appropriate size. Specifications and review of Safety Shutdown and Wellhead Control systems are covered in detail.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseControllers and Control Theory (s17192) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Control Philosophy
  • Control Theory
  • Controller Principles and Selection
  • Loop Configurations
  • Controller and Loop Tuning
  • Nomenclature
expand/collapsePressure Measurement and Control (s17200) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Principles of Operation
  • Device Selection
expand/collapseTemperature Measurement and Control (s17204) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Principles of Operation
  • Device Selection
  • Sensor Testing and Calibration
expand/collapseFlow Measurement and Control (s17209) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Principles of Operation
  • Device Selection
  • Meter Sizing
  • Exercise No 1
  • Exercise No 2
expand/collapseLevel Measurement and Control (s17216) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Principles of Operation
  • Device Selection
  • Device Mounting
expand/collapseControl Valves (s17221) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Principles of Operation
  • Valve Selection
  • Valve Body
  • Actuators
  • Installation
  • Control Valve Sizing
expand/collapseSafety Shutdown Systems (s17229) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • System Selection
  • Pneumatic Systems
  • Electrical Systems
  • Electronic Systems
  • Safety Analysis Concepts
expand/collapseWellhead Shutdown Systems (s17236) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Shutdown Criteria
  • Design Criteria
  • Instrument and Logic Components Selection
expand/collapseInstrumentation: References and Additional Information (s36136) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Additional Reading
expand/collapsePlatform and Structural Design Considerations (t6438) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 40 minutes

(average of 40 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: This presentation describes planning, designing, and arranging of equipment on offshore structures for the safe and efficient production of oil and gas. General criteria is provided for designing living quarters. This content also provides the project engineer with information for determining line size, wall thickness, and pressure rating class. Miscellaneous details to be considered in designing a piping system also are discussed.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseOffshore Facility Layout (s17241) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Items to Consider in Developing a Layout
  • Layout Procedures
expand/collapseLiving Quarters Layout (s17245) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Design Considerations
  • Layout Selection
  • List of Applicable Codes
  • NFPA 80 (National Fire Protection Association)
  • Guidelines for Quarters Areas
  • Example Layouts
expand/collapseFacilities Piping (s17253) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Basic Flow Equations and Factors
  • Pressure Drop in Piping
  • Choosing A Line Diameter
  • Determining Wall Thickness
  • Pressure Ratings
  • Determining Pressure Breaks
  • Facility Piping Details
  • Design Example (Oilfield Units)
  • Design Example (SI Units)
expand/collapsePlatform and Structural Design Considerations: References and Additional Information (s36138) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Additional Reading

Well Completion and Stimulation

expand/collapseBasic Completion Design and Practices (t38755) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

6 hours 48 minutes

(average of 68 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the key components, functional specifications, constraints and planning considerations involved in well completion design. Reviews the common types of completions and their areas of application. Describes the stages in the completion design process, the role of company policies, industry standards and regulatory requirements, and the typical tasks of a completions team.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseGeneral Criteria for Completion Design (s38756) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction to Completions
  • Completion Team Roles and Responsibilities
  • Design Process, Standards and Regulations
  • HSSE and Risk Management
  • Statement of Requirements and Basis of Design
  • Life of Well Functional and Servicing Requirements
  • Drilling Considerations
  • Completion Operations Planning
  • Cost Estimates, AFE and Other Approvals
expand/collapseBasic Downhole Configurations (s38768) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Open-Hole Completions
  • Uncemented Liner Completions and Open-Hole Gravel Packs
  • Perforated Completions
  • Multi-Stage Fracture-Stimulated Horizontal Wells
  • Single and Multizone Selective Completions
  • Observation Well Completions
expand/collapseLift Methods and Completion Design (s38787) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Flowing Wells, Continuous Gas Lift and Hydraulic Jet Pumping
  • Reciprocating Rod Pumping, Progressive Cavity Pumping and Hydraulic Piston Pumping
  • Electrical Submersible Pumping and Hydraulic Submersible Pumping
  • Intermittent Lift Systems
expand/collapseSpecialized Completion Designs (s38794) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • High-Pressure, High-Temperature (HPHT) Completions
  • Completions for Complex Well Trajectories
  • Offshore Completions
  • Completions for Cold Heavy Oil Production (CHOP)
  • Completions for Thermal Recovery Processes
  • Completions for Unconventional Gas Wells
expand/collapseCompletion Productivity and Injectivity (s38808) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • The Well Completion as Part of the Production System
  • Inflow Performance Relationships (IPR)
  • Vertical Lift Performance
  • Integrated System Analysis
  • Production Constraints and Optimization
expand/collapseCompletion Planning (s38823) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Completion Planning and Project Management
  • Contracts, Procurement and Logistics
  • Incorporating Well Evaluation Results
  • Programming and Supervision
  • Workover Planning and Operations
expand/collapseCementing (t37656) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

3 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Introduces the chemistry and classification of oil well cements. Discusses the use of additives, API testing requirements, and slurry flow properties. Describes cementing equipment, procedures, and evaluation techniques for primary and remedial cementing.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseIntroduction to Cementing (s37657) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Overview
  • Cementing Regulations
  • Quantities and Units of Measurement
  • Volume Calculations
  • Fluid Density
  • Subsurface Pressure Gradient Profiles
expand/collapseChemistry and Classification of Oilwell Cements (s37660) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Cement Manufacture and Chemistry
  • API Cement Types
  • Basic Cement Slurry Formation
expand/collapseAdditives (s37665) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Accelerators
  • Retarders
  • Extenders (Density-Reducing Additives)
  • Weighting Materials (Density-Increasing Additives)
  • Dispersants
  • Fluid Loss Control Additives
  • Lost Circulation Prevention Additives
  • Strengthening Agents
  • Antifoam Agents
  • Special Cement Systems
expand/collapseCement Testing Procedures (s37683) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • API and ISO Test Standards
  • Slurry Sample Mixing Procedures
  • Testing Procedures
expand/collapseCement Slurry Flow Properties and Mud Displacement (s37688) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Application of Rheological Models
  • Laminar and Turbulent Flow
  • Viscosity, Shear Stress, and Shear Rate
  • Fluid Models
  • Effect of Pump Rate and Equivalent Circulating Density on Displacement
  • Mud Conditioning
  • Washes, Preflushes, and Spacers
expand/collapseCementing Equipment (s37695) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Transport and Delivery of Basic Elements: Cement, Additives, Water
  • Surface Mixing and Pumping Equipment
  • Subsurface Equipment: Casing Hardware
expand/collapsePrimary Cementing (s37700) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Casing Program Overview
  • Example Casing Program: Marcellus Shale Well
  • Well Data Requirements for Cement Job Design
  • Slurry Design Considerations
  • U-Tube Effect
  • Elements of a Successful Cement Job
  • Single-Stage Cementing Process
  • Multiple-Stage Cementing
  • Liner Cementing
  • Cementing Subsea Wells
  • Cementing Horizontal Intervals
  • Special Primary Cementing Methods
  • General Operational Considerations
expand/collapseSqueeze Cementing (s37715) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Squeeze Cementing Definitions and Tools
  • Squeeze Cementing Design
  • Squeeze Cementing Procedure
  • Squeeze Cementing Job Evaluation
  • Squeeze Cementing Job Failures
expand/collapsePlug Cementing (s37722) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • General Cement Plug Job Design Considerations
  • Balanced Plug Method
  • Dump Bailer Method
  • Two-plug Method
  • Plug Cement Slurry Design
  • Testing Cement Plugs
  • Reasons for Failure of Cement Plugs
expand/collapseCement Evaluation (s37731) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Introduction
  • Pressure or Inflow Tests
  • Acoustic Cement Bond Logs
  • Temperature Surveys
  • Radioactive Tracer Surveys
expand/collapseCompletion Equipment (t1926) TOPIC LEVEL:BROWSELearnPrint

Estimated Time to Complete:

2 hours 20 minutes

(average of 20 minutes per Subtopic)

Topic Summary: Presents downhole components common in producing wells.

Subtopic Listing:

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expand/collapseTubulars (s1453) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • API Specifications
  • Tubing String Design
  • Production Casing
  • Couplings
  • Exercise No. 1
  • Exercise No. 2
  • Exercise No. 3
expand/collapsePackers (s1454) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Packer Functions
  • Packer Types and Applications
  • Tubing/Packer Forces and Movement
  • Exercise No. 1
expand/collapseArtificial Lift Equipment (s1458) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Anchors
  • Pumps
expand/collapseDownhole Completion Accessories (s1455) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Seating Nipples
  • Sliding Sleeves
  • Side Pocket Mandrels
  • Blast Joints and Flow Couplings
expand/collapseSubsurface Safety Valves (SSSVs) (s1456) BROWSELearnSubtopic information - Printer Friendly
  • Applications
  • Flow-Controlled SSSVs
  • Surface-Controlled SSSVs
  • Bottomhole Chokes and Regulators
expand/collapseWellhead Equipment (s1457) BROWSE